About Journal

A Scientific and Evaluated Journal Published by the College of Engineering – University of Diyala Date of First Issue (2008) No. of Issues per Year (2) (mid-year journal)until 2013 they became (4)per year (seasonal journal) No.of Issues Published between (2008–2013) 13 Journal publishes research in Arabic and English specialized in all fields of engineering.
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Journal Information

Publisher: Diyala University

Email:  engineering_college@diyengineering.net

Editor-in-chief: Dr. Amer Mohammed Ibrahim

ISSN: 1999-8716

Influence of Concrete Strength on the Cycle Performance of Composite Steel Plate Shear Walls

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 1-7

The goal behind this research is to highlight on structural system using composite steel plate shear wall, this approach is widely used in many countries, due to its desired features. Composite steel plate shear wall are often considered essential in design of building to resist seismic action. This paper discuss the effect of concrete strength on behavior of CSPW, for this objective one story one bay model with different compressive strength (25, 28 , 45, 50, 55, 65)MPa ,this model formed by finite element code which is advanced by university of Amirkabir. The accuracy of the representation of the model by numerical analysis, numerical result contrast with valid experiment which explain suitable agreement. Result show increasing the compressive strength would advance the cycle behavior. By contrast the result in elastic region, it was seen initial stiffness is not enhance by varying the compressive strength.

Eliminating the Shrinkage of High Strength Concrete by using Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP)

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 8-13

High Strength Concrete (HSC) is one of the most popular types of concrete used in the world. This type of concrete has a low rapid hydration of cementation materials with low w/cm and the external surrounding environment condition exposed the HSC to high autogenous shrinkage. If this shrinkage is not treated well that well led to cracking, in this case HSC need to convenient curing necessary at the earliest time. This study presents the use of Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP) as internal curing agent to eliminate shrinkage. Two types of shrinkage are tested in this study (Autogenous shrinkage and drying shrinkage).
Two groups of concrete mixes(A and B) are studied in this study each group have five types of concrete mixes, four mixes with high and ultra-high compressive strength (RPC, MRPC, HSC and SCC) and the last one with normal compressive strength (NSC). Group A represent concrete mixes without SAP addition and group B for concrete mixes with SAP. SAP was added for all mixes at 0.3% by weight of cement and adding 20ml water for each gram of SAP, specimens with dimensions (40*40*160) mm were used for testing shrinkage for each mix with and without SAP, average values for two specimens was taken as a results. It was found that concrete mixes of group B have lower shrinkage than the shrinkage of concrete mixes in group A at 28 days age with reduction of autogenous shrinkage(AS) of (57%, 35%, 37%, 44.5% and 37.5%) respectively and for drying shrinkage the percentage of reduction was (89.5%, 72%, 82%, 70% and 71%) respectively, addition of SAP to concrete mixes proves to have active effect in reducing the shrinkage of concrete.

Behavior of Cantilever Beams in R.C. Frames with Effect of Steel Fibers in Beam – Column Joint

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 14-19

This paper aims at investigating the behavior of cantilever beam in reinforced concrete frame modified by steel fibers. The study depends on adding steel fibers at the joint of beam column section to improves the ductility of the beam – column joint. Steel fibers of ratio (0.5%) and (1%) steel fibers by volume added for two specimens comparing with two others cast without steel fibers joint in R.C. frame. The cantilever frame behavior at applied load will be discussed in this study. The load applied to the frame at the edge of cantilever arms. The test results showed that the difference between the monolithic frame is larger in ultimate loads compared with non-monolithic, and the frame with 1% steel fibers have large load capacity compared with 0.5% steel fibers frame. The frame which cast monolithically shows highest resistance among the three other frames in ultimate load and flexural deformation, after load was applied to the four specimens the behavior of the frame up to the failure occurred in the beam-column joint at exterior face of the cantilever. beside studying the effect of steel fibers percentage and behavior of beam column joint, this study focuses also on investigating the difference between monolithic and non-monolithic concrete elements.

Study of Using Weighting Property Index for Selecting the Best Maintenance Management System (MMS) at Power Plants

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 20-27

To make Power Plants (PPs) economical, the maintenance functions should be optimized by carefully selecting and planning the Maintenance Management System (MMS) that will address the maintenance needs of the plant at the least cost. This research was carried out to obtain a clear understanding of the Traditional method and to assess their suitability to selection the management system of maintenance in power plants in Iraq. The objective of the study was to select the most suitable MMS for Maintenance of Electric Power Plants (MEPP) to make the plants operate economically. The traditional method called Weighting Property Index (WPI) used for selecting MMS for MEPP. This method, which is based on weighting property method (WPM) uses a digital logic (DL) due to, makes the result more accurate because it eliminates the problem of the criteria have least important. The research showed, when applied the method (WPI), the results was indicate that the preventive maintenance, is one of the types of planned maintenance, and is the best strategy for MMS in implementation the works (MEPP) in Iraq, where was arranging the alternatives generally according to results which was obtained from the method (WPI) as follows; preventive maintenance is (6.67), predictive maintenance is (6.07), proactive maintenance is (5.89), run to failure is (5.5), and unplanned failure is (5.33). For further research can be used operational KPIs with maintenance KPIs and use of another alternative is design out maintenance with other alternatives.

Simulation of Turbulent Heat Transfer Augmentation with Hybrid Nanofluid

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 28-34

Study of heat transfer augmentation with hybrid nanofluid represents a new class of heat transfer augmentation. The CFD model by using commercial software depending on finite volume technique and adopting SIMPLE algorithm is performed. Mixture of Aluminum Nitride (AlN) and alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles into water as a basefluid is classified as a new class of hybrid nanofluids that can augment heat transfer. The nanofluid volume fraction and Reynolds number are in the range of (1% to 4%) and (5000 to 17000) respectively. The size diameter of nanoparticles and heat flux around a horizontal straight tube are fixed at 30 nm and 5000 w/m2 respectively. The numerical solution has been successfully validated by using an experimental data available in the literature. Results show that combination of AlN - Al2O3 nanoparticles into water basefluid tends to augment significant heat transfer performance.

A System Dynamics Simulation to Estimate Roundabout Entry Capacity by Adopting Three Different Methods

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 35-45

Many models were introduced to estimate the roundabout entry capacity from 1980s until now. In the United States, transportation agencies adopted three different models from 1994 until 2010. The Austroads, the UK, and the HCM 2010 methods. In this paper, these three methods were used to analyze the field traffic data of Al-Quds roundabout, located near Baqubah City, simultaneously by utilizing a system dynamics model. The collected data included turning movements, circulating flows, and field calculated entry capacities whenever possible during the observation period which lasted for 14 consecutive hours. A comparison is then conducted on the resulting entry capacities and their variation over time. The results showed that the calculated capacity according to Austroads method is the highest at all times while the UK method was always a little lower and the HCM 2010 method was always the least on all entries. The UK method capacity estimates were the closest to the field measured capacities for they returned the least RMSE on all entries. Field capacities showed some tendency towards the Austroads results in the north and south bound entries which carry about 66% of the total traffic. While, field capacities showed more proximity towards the HCM capacity results in the east and the west bound entries which carry 34% of the total traffic.

Impact and Post Impact Behavior of Hybrid Composites

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 46-52

In this study, the effect of low velocity impact response of Kevlar/carbon hybrid composite has been investigated. Then the impacted specimens were subjected to compression and buckling tests at room temperature experimentally. The height, width and thickness of the specimens are 150, 100 and 2.1 mm, respectively. Impact tests have been performed under different impact energy levels by using low velocity impact testing machine. Compression and buckling tests were conducted by Shimadzu testing machine. According to obtained results, the damage increases by increasing the impact energy level in the subjected specimens to impact test. Compression strength value is higher about 3 times than buckling strength value.

The Effect of Irrgation Water Quality of Furrow Irrgation System on The Soil Properties in ABU Gharib District

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 53-59

a field experiment was conducted at the soil research department station (Agricultural Research Office), located in Abu Ghraib district (20 kilometers west of Baghdad) during the spring season for year (2016) to study the effect of irrigation water quality of furrow irrigation system on chemical and physical properties of the Soil.
The field study carried out by using three types of saline irrigation water: (tap water) with (0.6 ds/m), two wells water with (3.0 ds/m) and (5.1 ds/m), and the alternating irrigation method through the continuation of irrigation to the end of the agricultural season using one irrigate of tap water followed by one irrigate of water well with (5.1 ds/m). The results showed increasing of EC_S and SAR values if salinity water used as (〖S_2> S〗_3 〖> S〗_1), respectively for the depths (20-30, and 30-45cm) more than the depths (0-10, and 10-20 cm) and decreasing of EC_S and SAR values at the depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) when the tap water (〖 S〗_0) is used. Also, increasing of the physical properties of the soil when the irrigation used by tap water (S_0), and, decreasing of the physical properties of the soil when the irrigation used by water salinity (〖S_2> S〗_3 〖> S〗_1), respectively, at the depth (15-30) more than the depth (0-15 cm).

Experimental Stress Analysis for Woven Carbon, Glass, and Kevlar Laminate Shells

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 60-66

Composite shell structures have many applications in aerospace industry in which deal with various loading abundantly. In present paper Strain gauge instrument with rectangular rosette strain gauges were used to detect the maximum stress and strain distributions along the shell composite structure. Also a finite element analysis was done for validation of experimental results. The FEM software used was ANSYS14. Impact test, density measurement, and bending test were performed in order to detect physical and mechanical properties such as toughness, principal stresses, and density, of the three laminated composite shells. In addition, the results between experimental and ANSYS were compared. It was observed that an important discrepancy is found between theoretical and experimental results. It was also found a large difference in modulus of elasticity, toughness, and tensile strength for each composite material. These differences are tabulated in many tables in the last paper.

Hydrologic Modeling for Sedimentation in Hemrin Reservoir Using HEC-HMS

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 67-72

Hemrin dam is an important dam in Iraq located on Diyala river which is considered as main tributary of Tigris. The sedimentation is very difficult problem and is considered the major problem affecting the utilization of the dam. HEC-HMS 4.1 software was used to made a simulation for sedimentation in Hemrin reservoir in order to estimate the amount of sediment entering and deposition in the reservoir for the period (1981-2014). The calibration processes were performed using field measurement data for flow of water from Diyala river, the result obtained from simulation process found that the average annual sediment discharge load to Hemrin reservoir is ( 3.43x〖10〗^6 Ton), while the average annual sediment deposited is (3.25x〖10〗^6 Ton).

Study the Effect of Ingate Area on Mechanical Properties of As Cast (AL-0.4%Cu) Using ANN

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 73-77

In the present work the effect of Ingate Area on the Mechanical properties (σmax, σyield, E and hardness, stiffness) of as cast Al-4%Cu alloy had been studied, molds were made by sand casting with different ingate area (1cm×1cm, 1.2cm×1.2cm, 1.4cm×1.4cm, 1.6cm×1.6cm, 1.8cm×1.8cm, 2cm×2cm, 2.2cm×2.2cm, 2.4cm×2.4cm and 2.6cm×2.6cm). The process was done in normal condition (T=25Cᵒ, dry sand, constant speed, constant pour distance), while the casts prepared for the testing as a work piece to get the results. Also, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) had been adopted to predict the values of outputs (mechanical properties) and getting the mathematical equations that describe the relations between input and outputs parameters. From the results of the proposed work it conclude that mechanical properties magnitudes had been increased due to increasing in ingate area cast, and the relations between the ingate area and mechanical properties) had been detected depending on the results that gotten from ANN.

Turbulent Premixed Combustion in SI Engine

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 78-85

The turbulent lean premixed combustion simulation is implemented in 4- stroke spark ignition (SI) engine. The Turbulent Flame speed Closure model (TFC) is used in different turbulent flow conditions. The model is tested for a variety of flame configurations such as turbulent flame speed, the heat release from the combustion and turbulent kinetic energy in the radial direction of the cylinder at 15.5 mm below the top dead center TDC point. The simulation performs in the three cases of the (intake / exhaust) valve timing. The exhaust valve case is an essential leverage on the turbulent flame specification. The combustion period is very important factor in SI engine which is controlled especially by the turbulent flame speed. The turbulent flame speed and heat transfer is ascendant less than 10 % and 3% in case of intake and exhaust valves are closed respectively. Moreover, the results show that the brake power enhances less than 4% and more than 40% with increase fuel temperature 60 K and engine speed 3000 rpm respectively.

The Reduction of thermal environment effect by using portable secondary window

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 1-18

The Environmental heat which transform to building inside through window glass is very large ( due to the large value of glass heat transfer coefficient ) .Therefore an auxiliary window made from simple aluminum frame and consisted from three layers of polycarbonate solid transparence insulation sheet is suggested .This window can be joined to the building window at inside or outside according to building design requirement .This study was carried out at Baghdad climate zone (32.2N0) through summer season (may to September ) 2015 .
The test results showed that , using secondary window will reduce the electrical energy consumption used for cooling by ( 8 – 28.5)% according to glass types .
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EFFECT OF GLASS ADDITION AND HEAT TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND WEAR RATE OF ALUMINUM - 2% GRAPHITE

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 33-41

This research studied the effect of the Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties and the Wear Rate of the pure Aluminum with a particle size of (≤53μm). The Aluminum is reinforced by graphite with a particle size of (≤63μm) with an addition of glass particles with different weight ratios of (3, 6, 9, and 12) Wt. % and a particle size was (≤ 53μm).
Powder metallurgy technique has been used to manufactured the samples, where the samples are pressed uniaxial at room temperature with (500 Map), then sintering at (550 C0) for (2 hr.). After that, heat treatment is applied on the samples at (500 OC) for one hour and Quenched in water.
There was a great improvement of the mechanical properties such as the hardens and the compressive strength. This improvement was proportional with the Weight ratio of the glass particles before and after the Heat Treatment.
On the other hand, there was a decrease of the wear rate versus the increase of the Weight ratio of the glass particles and heat treatment.
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The impact of the organizational problems facing the transport network on the urban growth of Baqubah city

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 115-129

Transport is the most important factor affecting the development of the internal structure of the city. The problem of research is that the increase in the number of cars and especially the lack of reliance on public transport has led to a great momentum on the capacity of the transport network in the city. Offset by the lack of development, expansion and modification of the transport network of the city affects the quality of urban housing of the city as well as economic and social conditions and security conditions led to the imposition of security checkpoints and the closure of many of the streets, crowding the transport network and its impact on the urban development of the city. The objective of the research is to study the historical stages affecting the composition of the transport network and the effect of the geographic factors of Baquba city and its relationship with other cities in terms of the external transport network of passengers and goods. The approach we will adopt in the research is to develop the basic plans of the city which include appropriate solutions for the internal and external transport network of the city and apply it on the ground and not allow random transgressions by enacting laws that limit this overflow and finding appropriate solutions to the phenomenon of population displacement to the city and residential violations on the basic plans of the city and its impact on urban growth..

EFFECT OF INCREASING RIDE HEIGHT ON THE GENERATED AERO-DYNAMICAL FORCES

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 144-154

In this study, the changing in ride height of the car, which is usually arbitrarily been made, has been investigated. Many reasons could be achieved when ride has been increased, but without consideration of the undesired outcomes such as the related aero-dynamical forces effect. In this study, wind tunnel with fixed sedan car model was used. The model was easily allowed changing of the ride height. A range of velocities had been used as well. The General Full Factorial Method and Analysis of Variance were the convenient analytical tools in this study. The results showed that the drag force increased when ride height increased, especially, at the fronted point (stagnation point) which might increase fuel consumption and related pollution..

Theoretical analysis of surface roughness effect on hydrodynamic performance for bearings type 5220

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 19-32

In this research, we studied the effect of surface roughness for bearings of inner ring and cylindrical rotor type 5220, on the hydrodynamic lubrication in performance convergence area by analyzing the effect of surface roughness on the oil film thickness around the bearing, then influence on generated pressure by rotating shaft. Matlab. R2013b program with finite differences method of five nodes grid used to solve Reynolds equation numerically. the results appear that when the roughness of bearing surfaces is 18.2 µm (high finishing surfaces bearings), this will be decreasing 49% from the oil film thickness between surfaces, which cause increasing total pressure from (65.74 M. Pas.) (in rough surfaces) to (748.3 M. Pas.) which enhancing the ability of bearing to rising load of rotor shaft in the limited speed reach to (18.78 K.N.).

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THE EFFECT OF SPIN COATING SPEED AND DEPOSITION PARAMETERS ON THE CRYSTALLINE SIZE OF ZnO THIN FILMS

Aqeel Ali Al-Attar; Safaa Mohammad Hasony; Ali Hussein Ali

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 100-106

ZnO thin films have been deposited onto the glass-substrates by the sol-gel spin coating method at different chuck rotation rates. This method was used for the preparation of thin films on the important semiconductors ІІ-VІ. The effect of deposition parameters on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the ZnO thin film was investigated. Zinc acetate dehydrate, 2- methoxethanol and monoethanolamine (MEA) were used as a starting material, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. XRD of the dried gel showed that weight loss continued until 300°C, with smallest particle size at 400 rpm spin coating speed.

Influence of Concrete Strength on the Cycle Performance of Composite Steel Plate Shear Walls

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 1-7

The goal behind this research is to highlight on structural system using composite steel plate shear wall, this approach is widely used in many countries, due to its desired features. Composite steel plate shear wall are often considered essential in design of building to resist seismic action. This paper discuss the effect of concrete strength on behavior of CSPW, for this objective one story one bay model with different compressive strength (25, 28 , 45, 50, 55, 65)MPa ,this model formed by finite element code which is advanced by university of Amirkabir. The accuracy of the representation of the model by numerical analysis, numerical result contrast with valid experiment which explain suitable agreement. Result show increasing the compressive strength would advance the cycle behavior. By contrast the result in elastic region, it was seen initial stiffness is not enhance by varying the compressive strength.

STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE DIYALA CITY PROJECTS USING THE METHOD OF MULTIPLE CRITERIA COMPLEX PROPORTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVES WITH GREY RELATIONS (COPRAS-G)

Hafeth I. Naji

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-24

The construction sector the main driver of the national economy on the other hand is facing this sector stumbled in his performance and the advantage of the merger of several problems at the same time due to the complex nature and uncertain environment of the project and the multiplicity of factors that lead to the occurrence of a time delay in implementation and high cost of the project, and to address this challenges requires the project management methods in this area and the potential of a smart and distinctive in making the right decisions. The method of multiple criteria complex proportional assessment of alternatives with Grey relations (COPRAS-G) is one of those methods. This research focuses on providing (COPRAS-G) technique helps to make the best decisions when setting up the project, which encountered problems are complex and multi-criteria (MCDM). And apply this technique on a variety of areas as it allows the comprehensive study and non-biased criteria and alternatives. This research aims to highlight the importance of structural performance, and how it can be employed technical grounds (COPRAS-G) in assessing the structural performance of the Diyala City projects, through the identification of the criteria used to select the best project in terms of structural performance, and also to identify a list of projects the main province in order to choose the project optimization of this area. For the purpose of achieving the objective of research, has been collecting its own data from the literature that dealt with a multiple criteria complex proportional assessment of alternatives with Grey relations and, structural performance, and finally personal interviews of qualified designers and implementers of these projects. The results of data analysis for the sample showed that standards of cost, time, and quality is the most important criteria for bilateral comparisons between projects, and that the standard cost is more important than the rest of the criteria in the projects. Finally, and by calculating the relative importance of the projects and priorities of the alternatives and the utility degree have, we find that plant project streams Baquba has received the largest share of the benefit and importance compared with other projects.
In the end, was a set of conclusions and recommendations of the various aspects of the topic from, accelerate the application of techniques of decision-making multi-criteria in the evaluation of projects in addition to expediting the application of the proposed systems for Structural Performance by researchers to help corporate managers that the decision-making efficient, which will lead to a process control and more effective control on the construction project.

THE STUDY OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION ON A CYLINDER OF SUZUKI 250GSX ENGINE FUELED WITH GASOLINE BLENDS USING FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Lutfi Y. Zeidan; Mohammed KH. Abbass; Ali Z. Asker

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 145-157

The alcohol–gasoline blend fuels nowadays are increasingly used instead of gasoline in automobiles. In the present study, the temperature distribution within the cylinder of Suzuki 250Gsx motor was studied, taking in account the use of gasoline, E10-gasoline and E20-gasoline blends as a fuel, separately. The temperature fields are calculated using ANSYS 11 software. The geometric model and dimensions of the cylinder was established using Solid work 2003 program then imported by ANSYS11. After applying the boundary conditions and taking the assumptions in account, the results illustrated that the interchange of gasoline by E10-gasoline and or E20-gasoline blends has a variety of thermal load on the cylinder. Where the temperature distributed decreasingly towards the axial and radial directions. In addition, the engine becomes colder as the ethanol percentage in the fuel been 20%. This may provide supporting information for new designs for using E10-gasoline and or E20-gasoline blends on SI engines so that not to effect the engine operation and lubricating oil performance.

DESIGN OF A PC-BASED DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROLLER

Hawraa Qasim Hameed; Firas Mohammed Ali

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-11

This paper is concerned with the interfacing process between a personal computer and a permanent magnet DC motor. A practical interface circuit has been designed and implemented in order to control the speed of a permanent-magnet DC motor using a C++ control program.
The proposed circuit technique involves receiving the digital signals from the parallel port of the PC and providing them to a transistor driver circuit through an IC buffer. The transistors in the driver circuit are used to increase the current level of the incoming signals into an adequate value in order to drive control relays that are connected to the motor circuit. The control relays are utilized, in turn, to split or insert certain number of resistors connected in series with the motor circuit and thus changing its speed according to a prescribed digital sequence generated by the computer program. The circuit was implemented and tested successfully at the laboratory.

NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF PLATED T-SUBJECTED TO NEGATIVE BENDING MOMENT

Ahmed Abdullah Mansor

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 90-104

ABSTRUCT:- This paper present a numerical analysis using ANSYS finite element
program to simulate the reinforced concrete T- beams strengthened with external bonded
steel plates when subjected to negative bending. Eight beams with length 2.0m and simply
supported were modeled. Nonlinear materials behavior, as it relates to steel reinforcing bars
and plain concrete, and linear behavior for plate is simulated using appropriate constitutive
models. The results showed that the general behavior of the finite element models represented
by the load-deflection curves at midspanappear well agreement with the test data from the
previous researches. Also the crack patterns at the final loads from the finite models are
discussed . The finite element models represented by this search can be used to carry out
parametric study for the strengthening of plated T-beams.

EFFECT OF ANNEALING ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BRASS ALLOY TYPE C38500

Zuhal A. Kabash

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 16-26

The effect of annealing process on microstructure and mechanical properties of brass C38500 according to UNS was studied. The test samples were heated to (450, 500, 550 and 600) °C for 1 hour and in a furnace. The samples were cooled gradually to the room temperature.
The microstructural change during annealing was studied by using optical microscope and mechanical properties such as tensile strength, yield strength, hardness and torsionl test were also studied.
From the obtained results it was observed that annealing has a little effect on the microstructure and it reduces the mechanical properties (tensile strength, yield strength, hardness) as a result of elimination of the brittle phase or internal stress in microstructure, but it improves the torsional strength and increases the number of twisting angle it is also found that the annealing at (600)οC gives the best torsion test.

CALCULATION OF A DORSIFLEXION ANGLE OF A PROSTHETIC FOOT FOR AMPUTEES BY USING DEVELOPED TACTILE DISPLACEMENT SENSOR

Muhsin J. Jweeg

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 3, Issue 0, Pages 76-91

ABSTRACT:-This research aims to design, construct, and evaluate a tactile sensor for measuring displacements. The sensor is then employed in a developing computerized displacement measurement in order to assess its potential in sensing and evaluating a dorsiflexion angle of a new dynamic prosthetic foot for amputees. The developed system consists of three main parts namely, the sensor, the data acquisition unit that includes an analogue to digital (ADC) module, and a computer to aid in the processing of acquired data.
One type of tactile sensors was used in the investigation. That is Potentiometric-based displacement sensors. That sensor provide analogue output signals, hence, to enable its input to the employed computer these signals are converted to digital type by the developed ADC-based module which is interfaced to the computer via the Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP).
A number of tests were conducted to establish valid calibration of the system. Early experimental results showed that there are matching between the obtained results and the best fit lines when measuring linear displacement and using the traditional calibration method, therefore, the researcher decided to use that developed sensor in measuring the dorsiflexion angle of the new dynamic prosthetic foot and comparing the obtained results with the standard one.
Key words: Prosthetic foot, Dorsiflexion angle, Tactile displacement sensor.

EFFECT OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING PARAMETERS FOR STEEL SHEETS ON THE WELDING STRENGTH

Khalid Ahmed Al-Dolaimy

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 668-673

The resistance spot welding processes are widely used in the automobile, appliance and industries that use steel sheets, because of its low cost, high productivity, simple mechanism and applicability for automation. In this welding operation, two or more metal parts were joined together in a localized area by resistive heating and pressing force.
In this research, the effect of some welding parameters (voltage-current, and welding cycle time) on the resistance spot welding strength was investigated. Specimens made of mild steel sheet were spot welded and examined by using tensile test. The objective is to find out the optimum values of these parameters that give the best weldment strength which minimizes the frailer of the welded joint due to unsuitable welding parameters, and also to reduce the time and energy in using this process.
The results show that the welding parameters significantly affect the joint strength of the resistance spot welding. It shows that at low welding voltage-current, the welding joint strength increased by increasing welding cycle time, however at higher voltage-current, it increased by increasing welding cycle time to a specific values then started to decrease. It is obvious that voltage-current is more influential on welding joint strength than the welding cycle time. At (5 KVA) and (0.6 s) welding cycle time gave the best improvement in weldment strength for three sheet thicknesses (1, 1.5, and 2) mm of mild steel sheets.

CALCULATION OF A THREE DIMENSIONAL COORDINATES OF A MANIPULATOR END EFFECTOR IN A COMPOUND FRAMES

Emad K. Hussein

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 64-82

A theoretical and experimental study of measurement of three dimensional Cartesian coordinates of the end effecter of a robotic manipulator with three different frames each one known relative to the other was carried out in this research.
The aim of this work is, first, to calculate three dimensional Cartesian coordinates of an end effecter tip which lies in a specific frame {C} with respect to another frame which represents the fixed base frame {A} passing through an intermediate frame {B} by using Matrix Compound Transformation Method i.e. theoretical approach, then followed by measuring the same coordinates by another two traditional procedures, they are:
o Self Coordinates Feeding.
o Manual Alignment.
And comparing the final obtained results (theoretical and experimental) with the standard one. The second step is checking repeatability for the above mentioned methods, by measuring the final tip coordinates for 18 times for each case.
The final result shows that the Matrix Compound Transformation Method gives an accurate repeatability comparing with the others.

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