ISSN: 1999-8716

Volume 5, Issue 2

Volume 5, Issue 2, Autumn 2012, Page 1-178


EFFECT OF NOTCH ANGLE AND NOTCH ROOT RADIUS ON THE NOTCH SENSITIVITY OF MEDIUM CARBON STEEL UNDER STATIC AND DYNAMIC STRESSES EFFECTS.

Mustafa Ahmed Rijab; Salma Arfan Hussein

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 1-9

Stress concentration is critically looked at in view of the large number of
reported cases of failure attributed to the presence of some form of stress
concentration; these are usually associated with stress concentration. This paper
studies the effect of both notch angle and notch root radius on notch sensitivity index
of medium carbon steel .Bending fatigue tests carried out on specimens carrying
angular notch. Results showed that the notch angle and notch root radius the
increment of is accompanied by a corresponding increase in endurance and tensile
strength. On the after hand stress concentration effect is found to decrease. Notch
sensitivity variation with both stress concentration factor Kt and fatigue strength
reduction factor Kf is found similar.

RESOURCES SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING MODEL USING HIERARCHICAL APPROACH FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

Suhad M Abd

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 1-19

Within the early stages of construction project planning, resources
restrictions are often neglected. Usually this leads to cost and schedule overruns. Moreover,
the adoption of resources restricted project planning may lead to a complex optimization
problem. Thus engineers should focus on resources-based project planning for more schedule
efficiency. Nevertheless, the integration with traditional methods as the PERT (program
evaluation and review technique) or the CPM (critical path method), can improve schedule
reliability significantly in project failures due to insufficient resource allocation. Potential
applications of resource-restricted project scheduling for construction project planning are
revealed with some suggestions on the integration of this approach into traditional planning
methods are made. For overlapping both, traditional planning methods as well as resourcebased
planning models, knowledge transferred from production planning to project planning
by applying a hierarchical approach. Analyses of multi planning problems in construction
projects are undertaken and the roles of the generalized resource-restricted project scheduling
model and selected extensions within construction project planning are discussed.

ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR DIYALA UNIVERSITY PROJECTS USING THE METHOD OF MULTIPLE CRITERIA COMPLEX PROPORTIONAL ASSESSMENT (COPRAS)

Hafeth I. Naji

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 10-29

The critical competition between firms in the construction market is the
challenge in marketing its products, so these companies started search for the best talent Used
better management tools and new ways to respond to this challenge, and the quality
management represents one of these management tools in the construction industry. This
research aims to highlight the importance of quality, and how it can be employed technical
grounds (COPRAS) in the assessment of quality management for Diyala University projects,
through the identification of the criteria used to select the best project in terms of quality
management, as well as determining the list of Diyala University projects in order to choose
the optimal project of these terms. For the purpose of achieving the objective of research, has
been collecting its own data from the literature that addressed the objective of quality
management and method of multiple criteria complex proportional assessment (COPRAS),
and finally personal interviews of qualified designers and implementers and operators of
these projects. the results of data analysis for the sample and then Rank Order Centroid
method (ROC) and distinctive in their application Showed that criteria of the design, control
on the costs and changes in work, review contracts, and control on the functions of the project
are the most important criteria for bilateral comparisons between projects, and that the criteria
of design, and control on the cost and changes in work are more important than the rest of the
criteria in the projects.
Finally, and by calculating the relative importance , priorities of the alternatives and the
benefit degree of the projects, we find that students club Project has received the largest
share of the benefit and importance compared with other projects. In the end, was a set of
conclusions and recommendations of the various aspects of the topic from, accelerate the
application of techniques of decision-making multi-criteria in the evaluation of projects in
addition to expediting the application of the systems proposed by researchers for the quality
management to help the engineers on the best implementation of this administration.

IMPLEMENTATION OF STORAGE DEVICE (RAM) USING MULTISIM

Hussein Abdulameer Abdulkadhim

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 20-36

Read access memory (RAM) considers an important part in several systems
such as computer and communication systems; and there is several applications software that
used for implements the digital circuits of RAM. In this project, multisim 9 application
software was used to implement and simulate several logic circuits of RAM with many sizes
at which implement RAM circuit from sub RAM. Also, it may be prepared as apart of
equipments for the airborne computer system.

COMPUTATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER FLOW IN ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

Mohammed K. Abbas; Ali Z. Asker; Samir D Ali

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 37-51

The electrical submersible pump (ESP) systems play an important role in
the industry and many engineering applications. It is frequently used in the drinking water
purification units for lifting water from well. The centrifugal pump is the most important part
of ESP systems. In the present work, a simulation have been carried out using Computational
Fluid Dynamic CFD techniques and commercial software based on the finite volume
method, ANSYS® CFX® Release 11.0. The results of the simulations include the pressure
fields, velocity field, and velocity vector obtained to the internal flow in the impeller and
diffuser channels of a centrifugal pump at flow rate 0.005m3/s. A stationary flow with
constant boundary conditions is proposed. A comparison between the simulation of the
present work and the head capacity of the performance curve that obtained practically was
performed and showed satisfactory agreement.

AN ANALYSIS STUDY FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER VALIDITY OF AL– TAHRER LIQUEFIER STATION IN DAYALA

Mouthr Abd-al wahaab Rakheb

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 43-58

This study was conducted to determine the consumption validity of
drinking water of Al– Tahreer liquefier station in Baquba / Diyala, by determining
concentrations of inorganic elements and some of the toxic heavy elements in drinking water
resulting from the station, during the specified period (from November 2010 until June 2011),
all the required chemical and physical tests included temperature, pH, electrical conductivity,
the amount of dissolved salts, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, sodium,
potassium, aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, nitrates and lead.
Final results of this study confirmed that most of the determinants were within
international standards of World Health Organization, except the presence of significantly
increasing in concentrations of some heavy metals including nickel and cadmium during the
examination period, with monthly average readings of (0.016 ppm), for cadmium and (0.096
ppm) for nickel respectively, with an increase more than the percentage (100%), from the
environmental standards.
The researcher attributes that to the waste and the abuses that have been registered of the
company which is building a new hospital within the examination period, in addition to a non
studied using of fertilizers to raise the agriculture production with the frequent overcome of
some people to the river.
Some solutions and recommendations have been developed. As well as, it has been
illustrated that the station has acceptable efficiency of removing raw water turbidity, with the
absence of efficiency relative to the rest of chemical determinants.

FOOTING CONTACT PRESSURE OF BUILDING FOUNDED ON SOFT CLAY TREATED WITH SAND PILES

Waad Abdulsattar Zakaria

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 52-65

This research is devoted to the behavior of a separate single footing
constructed over soft clayey soil treated with sand piles. The proposed structure is a multistorey
building having bays 4x4 m. Supporting column has large steel I-section resting on a
2.5x2.5x0.40m footing transferring a presumed load of 460kN. Several patterns of sand piles
are proposed in soil foundation and each case is analyzed separately to account for the change
in shear and moment in footing. The problem is analyzed numerically by the FE technique
using STAAD-Pro/2004 program, while the footing is divided into a FE mesh having 100
element of semi-cubic shape. Degrees of freedom at each node are six. The distribution of
soil pressure is measured using Hughes theory, which deals with the bearing capacity of sand
piles. Soil modulus of subgrade reaction is assumed 20000kN/m2.m, angle of friction for sand
is 30 degrees, and the undrained cohesion of soft clay is 25kN/m2. It is concluded that the
presence of sand piles in foundation clay does not have much change in the stresses coming
from shear and moment distribution in footing compared to same footing constructed on clay
without sand piles treatment. Meanwhile, the ACI code failure criteria are considered valid in
both cases.

ANALYATICAL STUDY OF WATER SEEPAGE AT RESERVOIR OF HEMREN DAM

Thair H.Abddullah Al-Juburiy

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 59-67

Hemren's Dam situated on Diyala river and has storage capacity (3.95)
cubic kilometer at level (107.5) meter above mean sea level. Seepage's water had been
studied semi periodical since 1989 on left side of the Dam.
The results indicated present of joints and fishers at the study area. Which were the reasons
to seepage the water, besides to the position of strike beds. The chemical analysis of water's
symbols indicted to increasement in percentage of soluble salts with the time. All those
indcation on soluble of minerals or rocks in continues form.

EFFECT OF SUPERPLASTICIZER DOSAGE ON WORKABILITY OF SELF COMPACT CONCRETE

Ali Hussein Hameed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 66-81

Self-compacting concrete has an enhanced ability to flow. It is known to
result in an increased segregation and bleeding potential. This paper discusses the results of
an experimental investigation into the properties of self-compacting concrete mixes having
varying dosage of high-performance superplasticizer (Glenium 51) (0.5%-3.0%) L per 100 kg
of cement material. The properties investigated are workability on the fresh state of concrete
by using one mix with five superplasticizer dosage (0.5%,1.0%,1.5%,2.5% and 3.0%) is
used. The workability was assessed using three tests according to the specification of self
compacted concrete (slump flow ,L- box differential height and V-funnel tests. The three
dosage (1.0%,1.5% and 2.5%) comply with requirement for production of SCC while 0.5%
and 3.0% don’t comply with specification requirement .Dosage of superplasticizer need to
produce self compacted concrete range between (1.0%-2.5%) L/100 kg of cement according
to the condition and material used in this paper .

CALCULATION OF SOLUBLE LOADS IN TIGRIS RIVER AT BAGHDAD AND IT'S EFFECTS FACTORS

Nadir Abass Al-Ansariy; Yaurb N.Faraman; Thair H.Abdullah Al-Juburiy

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 68-77

The area of Tigris river Basin is (471606) square kilometers, and the most
of outcrops rocks for this basin are sedimentary type.
The rate of rainfall at the Basin ranging from 1000 ml/ year at the northern of the basin to
150ml/ year at the southern of the basin.
Applied the results which, had been gotten from collected samples for two years 1988-1989
and 1989-1990 for calculated total dissolved solids and total ions.
It had been found the larger cautaions and anions were calcium and sulphate respectively.
Applied ten methods for calculated dissolved solids by three equations (linear, logermatic,
polynomial).
It was found the linear equations were the best for calculated yearly loads. Dissolved solids
generally effected by geological and hydrological factors, and showed the rains effect on
loads very clear at winter season, while the snow melting effects was at spring season.

EVALUATION OF WATER QUALITY OF DIYALA RIVER FOR IRRIGATION PURPOSES

Nahida H. Hamza

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 82-98

The study comprised suitability evaluation water of quality of Diyala river
for irrigation uses. Four stations were selected along Diyala river which are Jalawlah station
(DI2) before Jalawlah Bridge, Saadiyah station (DI3) before inter to Hamren Dam, Muqdadia
station (DI4) after Diyala Dam, and Baqubah station (DI5) at Iron Bridge, besides wand river
station in Khanaqin (DIW) Before Dam. Water samples were collected and analyzed for pH,
electric conductivity (EC), TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3
-, CO3
2-, SO4
2-, Cl-, and NO3
- one
sample monthly were taken from these stations during January to December 2010. In
addition, to classifying water quality and evaluation its suitability for irrigation purposes,
Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP) and Residual Sodium
Carbonate (RSC) were calculated following standard equations and found experimentally as
(0.985), (20.027), (-4.404) respectively. According to the EC and SAR plotted on the US
salinity diagram, it is illustrated that water samples of DIW and DI5 fall in the class of C3-S1
indicating high salinity with low sodium water, which can be used for irrigation on almost all
types of soil with only a minimum risk of exchangeable sodium, while water samples of other
stations fall in the class of C2-S1 indicating medium salinity with low sodium water, which
can be suitable to salt tolerant plants with probability developed permeability problem of soil
when Lime is not existing. RSC values are negative at all sampling sites, indicating that there
is no complete precipitation of calcium and magnesium. All other parameters were within
standard levels. The results of the study revealed that the quality of Diyala river water can be
classified as suitable for irrigation with few exceptions.

DESIGN & EVOLUTION OF A STEGANOGRAPHY SYSTEM FOR SPEECH SIGNAL BY SLANTLET TRANSFORM

Tarik Z.Ismaeel; Ahlam Hanoon

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 99-113

In this paper a Stegan graphic system was proposed to hide up a secret
speech signal in a cover speech signal, using Slant let transform. The combination of a Stegan
graphy and cryptography is used to increase the level of security and to make the system
more rigid and complex to be defeated by attackers. In cryptography the secret speech signal
is converted from 1-D to 2-D signal, divided into blocks each of size (8*8) sampled and then
the samples are converted to the binary form, after that, columns transposition is applied to
get the ciphered signal. This cipher signal will be the next stage, we are driving the key which
is used in cyphering process from the slantlet coefficients.
The proposed system increases the imperceptibility property because it is based on
replacing each secret bit with one of the host coefficient bit (the host coefficient may be the
same as secret bit). So that changing of host signal due to embedding process was decrease d
but the dimension of the cover signal will be a tradeoff between the imperceptibility
and the capacity of the system. Imperceptibility and security test s are implemented to check
the system. Peak signal to Noise Ratio(PSNR) & Correlation(Corr.) between cover signal &
the stego - signal are carried out to evaluate the perform ance of the proposed algorithm.

MEASUREMENT OF MAGNETIC FIELDS EMITTED FROM WELDING MACHINES

Kamil . J. Ali

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 114-128

The electric arc welding process makes use of the heat produced by the
electric arc to fusion weld metallic pieces. An electric arc is formed when an electric current
passes between two electrodes separated by a short distance from each other. The aim of this
work is to determine the electromagnetic field strength emitted by different electrical welding
machines at different ranges and identify the safe ranges in order to avoid its negative health
effects on the welder body. The research has been performed in two parts, mathematical
calculations and practical measurements using (EMF-827) field tester. Both measurements
indicate that these exposure levels lie within permissible international standard limits , but in
some very close to the torch the values of magnetic filed are above the standard permissible
values, so there is no harm to human health if the exposure is for an intermittent and
discontinuous periods.

IMPROVEMENT OF WORKABILITY OF PORCELAIN UNDER EFFECT OF ALUMINA

Jaleel I.k.Al.Robayie

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 129-136

Adding of alumina to porcelain improve the mechanical properties of the
green and fired body.
This improvement depend on the properties of the added alumina, such as surface area,
morphology and the percentage of the alumina.
Adding of alumina effected also the properties of porcelain slip viscosity , less grinding of
alumina result in high slip viscosity.
The increasing of grinding finesse of the alumina rise the rate of body formation.
This investigation showed that the alkali content of the alumina and the crushing states
have significant effects on the workability of the porcelain green body.

DISTRIBUTION OF SHEAR STRESSES IN ISOLATED SQUARE CONCRETE FOUNDATION HAVING SPOTS OF VERY WEAK SOILS

Khattab Saleem AbdulRazzaq

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 137-161

In the usual methodology for soil investigation, boreholes locations are
selected in site, machinery extract, with due care, soil samples (or specimens) and tested, and
then soil strength parameters for site are calculated. The soil report may contain some of the
field tests, the SPT for instance, as well. The procedure is to pass this information to the
structural engineer who, in turn, may design the structure. In soil investigation principle, the
small soil specimen extracted from the soil strata have complete representation of the soil
body underneath the footing. In soil mechanics theory the soil is well known to be
nonhomogeneous and nonisotropic. This, eventually, means that soil properties and strength
parameters change not due to location only but due to change of direction as well. This
situation imposes the fact that the principle of representing the whole body of soil with a
small sample is practically incorrect. The principle is assumed correct only as much as the
soil is more and more isotropic and homogeneous. Therefore, it is in reality not uncommon
for cavities to be present in soils body due to many reasons. If those cavities are detected
before footing construction, then it is assumed that there is no serious problem. On the other
hand, if it is not detected, the situation imposes a serious problem to the footing and structure
depending on size and location of cavity.
This study deals with cavity presence directly underneath a single separated footing of
proposed multi-storey building. Location and size of cavity are changed and a finite element
(FE) analysis is run for each individual case. The subgrade soil is assumed medium-dense
sand with a modulus of subgrade reaction 35000 kN/cu.m. Other than cavity location, the
subgrade is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic, i.e. have same material and strength
properties. Suitable graphs are used to illustrate the stresses in footing. The study, however,
take into account the shear stresses in 3D only (a shear-care study) in concrete. The foundation concrete is assumed to have low compressive strength such as 20 MPa. Other
properties of concrete are assumed program’s default.

EFFECT OF KAOLIN ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE/ POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITE MATERIAL

Samir Nassaf Mustafa

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 162-178

In this work, the mechanical and water absorption properties of polymer
blend polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) at constant ratio (50/50)
composites as a function of kaolin powder weight content in the grain size (100,120 μm) were
investigated. Polymer composite was fabricated by mixing polymer blend ( PPLDPE) with
(0, 1, 3 ,5, 10, 14) wt.% of kaolin powder to obtain desirable properties. The parameters such
as tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break , yield stress, impact strength, shore D
hardness and water absorption test were carried out on the prepared samples. The results
showed that the addition of kaolin powder to the polymer leads to increase the tensile
strength, modulus of elasticity, shore-D hardness and impact strength and it decreases the
% elongation at break,. Water absorption of the composites behaves as function of time (days)
has also been investigated, and it increases by increasing immersion time for the same filler
content, while the absorbed amount of water increases, by increasing the wt% of kaolin at
constant immersion time.