ISSN: 1999-8716

Volume 6, Issue 2

Volume 6, Issue 2, Spring 2013, Page 1-153


EFFECT OF SHOT PEENING TIME ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS AA2017-T4 AND AA6063- T5

Ali A.Ali; Esam A. Ebrahim; Mohammed H. Sir; Barazan A. Hamah Said

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 1-8

The present work devote the effect of shot peening time on the mechanical properties for two aluminum alloys AA2017-T4 and AA6063-T5. The test carried out using standard tensile specimens under various shot peening times. The results showed that the increase in yield and tensile strength values. The maximum increasing at 15 minute for AA 2017-T4, and at 9 minute for AA 6063-T5. The maximum values of strain hardening factor (n) and strength factor (k) are recorded at 15 minute for AA 2017-T4 while recorded the maximum values of (n) at 24 minute and (k) at 9 minute for AA 6063-T5. The results showed that the percent elongation are increased to maximum value at 9 minute for AA 2017-T4 while the minimum value was at the same time for AA 6063-T5.

STUDY OF URBAN EXPANSION OF CHAMCHAMAL CITY AND THE INFLUENCING FACTORS FROM 1987 TO 2011

Hussein D. Mohammed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 1-15

The Applied research deals with the study of the stages of urbanization growth of the city of Chamchamal and the main effect parameters of human and natural factors in addition to determining the future movements in the best of the urban expansion of the city through the analyzing of the urban growth during the follow-up phase of the 1987 - 2011 in order to achieve continuous system of urban development. The study was conducted by applying the technique of Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing data of satellite images with high resolution. Where the representation of reality urban city of Chamchamal by using the spatial data (geographical), digital base maps and their relationship with the attribute data related to studies of statistical demographic, social and economic data in order to support the process of urban planning by saving time, effort and cost in the completion of the development plans at a faster rate with high quality, reducing of waste in human and material resources and energy. Using Spatial and Attribute Techniques of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has allowed us to identify the axes of urbanization growth of the city of Chamchamal determinants in addition to determine of the natural, engineering and regulatory constraints specified by the researcher and by relying on the planning standards adopted in Iraq. This procedure requires a special methodology for the management of existing data, by building a digital database, by using geographic information systems technology that could be applied to perform special tasks to support urban planning.

FLEXURAL CAPACITIES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE TWO-WAY BUBBLEDECK SLABS OF PLASTIC SPHERICAL VOIDS

Amer M. Ibrahim; Nazar K. Ali; Wissam D. Salman

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 9-20

This paper presents the flexural capacities of R.C two way hollow slabs of plastic spherical voids, also known as BubbleDeck slab system. Recently, various types of slab systems which can reduce the self-weight of slabs have been studied as the height and width of building structures rapidly increase (1). A biaxial hollow slab system is widely known as one of the effective slab systems which can reduce the self-weight of slabs (1). A BubbleDeck slab has a two-dimensional arrangement of voids within the slabs to reduce self-weight (2). The behavior of BubbleDeck slabs is influenced by the ratio of bubble diameter to slab thickness. To verify the flexural behavior of this BubbleDeck slab such as ultimate load, deflection, concrete compressive strain and crack pattern, two-dimensional flexural tests were tested by using special loading frame. Six test of specimens were used. Two were a conventional RC slab and four were BubbleDeck slabs having void diameter to slab thickness ratios of (0.51, 0.64 and 0.80). Results have shown that the crack pattern and flexural behavior depend on the void diameter to slab thickness ratio. The ultimate load capacities for BubbleDeck slabs having bubble diameter to slab thickness of (0.51 and 0.64) were the same of solid slabs, while when bubble diameter to slab thickness of (0.80) the ultimate capacities were reduced by about (10%).

RELIANCE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING AND REHABILITATION THE IRAQI CEMENT FACTORIES (IRAQI CEMENT STATE CO. - CASE STUDY)

Ibrahim A. Mohammed; Suaid N. Akaib; Ibrahim F. Tahsen

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 16-46

Iraq is one of the cement manufacturer countries, due to the abundant of raw materials in addition to technical and practical knowledge. There are cement plants in several governorates of Iraq. Iraq was one of the exported countries for this material, now Iraq is importing country to this material due to the lack of production for the domestic market. The cement industry is one of the strategic industries related construction project. In the same time it is classified by the organizations of environment protection as dirty industry. The impact of the economical blockade in the last century in addition to low power supply and obsolescence in the production units, on the production efficiency of cement factories in Iraq.
The present researches describes the essential requirements for the Environmental Management system, and recommend to follow it in its application requirements, as being that in many developed countries, regarding to the benefits coming from this system on the environmental economical aspects. Therefore the need arises to take into account the adoption of the requirements of this system in compliance with the existing cement factories intended to be rehabitated and that will be constructed in the future so as to create a safe environment for the workers in the factory or in the neighboring residential area.

REPAIRED REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS WITH NORMAL AND HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE

Emad Yassin Khudhair

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 21-37

In recent years several attempts were undertaken to repair damaged reinforced concrete structures. Studies on the effectiveness of repaired and strengthened reinforced concrete elements which fail primarily due to formation of major flexural cracks are same what limited for normal strength concrete (NSC) and very limited for high strength concrete (HSC).
The overall objective of the present work is to investigate the strength and deformation characteristics in flexure of reinforced HSC and NSC beams repaired with either with concrete alone or with fiber reinforced concrete or with Welded Wire Mesh (W.W.M).
From the results obtained, it was found that the beams were adequately repaired and the general mode of failure was flexural. The repaired beams had higher strength than the original beams. All repaired beams exhibited significant decrease in deflection than the original beams.

DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF HYBRID SYSTEM FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN IRAQI RURAL REGIONS

Kareem Kadhum Gasem; Qusay Abdul-Jabbar Jawad; Mohammed Ridha Jawad

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 38-56

In this research the design and simulation of a hybrid wind-solar and diesel was studied and discussed to be used in the far areas of our country to help the people there in improving their life where electricity from the main grid has not reached yet.
The proposed connecting configurations are compared to select the one with the best efficiency of power consumption to the consumers by considering each power sources independently. It is found that best efficiency of power consumption can be achieved with the Mixed-coupling HPSs, when compared with the other topologies and the selected topology is used for further investigation.

EVALUATION OF WATER QUALITY OF HEMREN LAKE

Saad Sh. Sammen

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 57-76

In this study Water Quality Index (WQI) was applied in Hemren Lake, Diyala province, Iraq using ten water quality parameters (pH, Electrical Conductivity, Hardness, Total Dissolve Soluble, Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Chloride, Phosphate) from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate the suitability of Hemren Lake ecosystem for drinking and irrigation uses. The Weighted Arithmetic Index method (WAM) and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index methodology (The CWQI 1.0 model) were used to calculate the water quality index (W.Q.I). The results indicated that drinking water quality of Hemren Lake is good and marginal for the study period according to (WAM) and (CCME) respectively, while the irrigation water quality is good and according to (WAM) and (CCME). It is suggested that monitoring of the lake is necessary for proper management. Application of the WQI is also suggested as a very helpful tool that enables the public and decision makers to evaluate water quality of lakes in Iraq.

GENERATION OF ENTANGLED PHOTONS BY A SHORT COHERENCE LENGTH VIOLET DIODE LASER

ad Subhi Abbood; Ahmed I. Khaleel; Shelan Kh. Tawfeeq

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 77-85

Pumping a BBO crystal by a violet diode laser with a wavelength of (405 nm) output power of (24 mW) and a line width of (3nm) was employed to generate entangled photons with a wavelength of 810 nm by achieving type II phase matching conditions.
The coincidence count rate obtained in this experiment was in the range of (18000) counts/s. Two BBO crystals with different thicknesses of (4 mm and 2 mm) were tested, where maximum count rates of about (18000) counts/s was obtained with a (5*5*2) mm BBO crystal where the short coherence time for the pumping source was tolerated by using shorter BBO crystals. Also, the effect of compensating crystal on the walk-off effect was studied. The coincidence count rates were increased by using these crystals when their optic axes were fixed in the opposite direction relative to the optic axis of the original BBO crystal.

DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF A HYDROSTATIC EXTRUSION APPARATUS FOR COMPOUND CYLINDERS FROM AL AND MG

Mohsen J. Joaij; Moneer H. Tlafeh; Abdullah D. Assi; Esam T. Abdullah

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 86-102

The purpose of this research is to design and construct an experimental hydrostatic extrusion apparatus which has a maximum working pressure of 500 bar, and to reduce the cost of this extrusion apparatus. The high-pressure extrusion container has been designed with hydraulic cylinders which is cheap and readily available. Different materials and designs for high-pressure seals were tested and analyzed for the best combination performance. Problems in the extrusion processes using this device were analyzed and solved, which increased the reliability of the device. The results of extrusion experiments have established that this device is practicable.

A COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK PLANNING FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE KURDISTAN REGION IRAQ

Othman Karim Mohammed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 103-121

The concept of the case study "comprehensive framework planning" is crucial to consider it encompasses a number of important issues relevant to rebuild and develop the Iraqi Kurdistan– especially the countryside- after miss-failure of the regional government to master the reconstruction and development problem, of which three major interconnected issues that of integration, coordination and sustainable development. It begins to produce connections of integrated governance, spatial integration, and sustainability to those of very local- and regional-based needs. Accordingly, it specifies the root causes the entire accumulated-chronically problems in both rural and urban areas and worked out the related solutions in form of a "frame work planning", within which the interconnected sphere, of Agriculture, industry, environment impacts, housing and related infrastructures integrated. Then the study assumes that most of the reasons that have led to miss-failure of the regional governments lie in the miss-definition the problem itself that results in the sporadic, disintegrated, disjointed manner of planning actions of institutions that involved directly or indirectly in rehabilitation and development affair of the region. In addition to this, the development problem is still seeing to be as if the provision of housing only.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 0F PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ALONG MAKHOOL DAM SPILLWAY

Muhanad Mohammed Abbas

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 122-138

This research is an experimental investigation on the pressure distribution along the surface of Makhool Dam spillway. The work is carried out as series of tests; these series are on the model as it is designed.
(17) Piezometers are fixed along the spillway surface and (4)discharges are performed on the model. The results indicated that the pressure distribution is reduced with the increase of the discharge and it is increasing with the decrease of the discharge, and there are two regions of negative pressure; the first at the ogee curve and the second at the end of the sloping straight line after ogee curve, so the slope of the horizontal surface of spillway can be reduced or change the ogee formula to prevent the cavitations' problems.

STUDYING THE EFFECT OF REINFORCING BY SICP ON THE DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AL- 4% CU MATRIX ALLOY

Israa A. K

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 139-153

This research is devoted to study the effect of addition of different weight percent from SiCp ( 2, 4, 6, 8 ) to Al– 4 Cu alloy which have been fabricated by liquid metallurgy method on the dry sliding wear behavior and mechanical properties. Wear characteristics of Al–SiC composites have been investigated under dry sliding conditions and compared with base alloy. Dry sliding wear tests have been carried out using pin-on-disk wear test under normal applied loads 5, 10, 15 and 20 N and at different sliding velocity of (2.7, 3.7, 4.7) m/sec. It was also observed that the wear rate varies linearly with increases normal applied load but lower in composites as compared to the base material. The wear mechanism appears to be oxidative for both Al – Cu alloy and composites under the given conditions of load and sliding velocity as indicated by optical microscopic of the worn surfaces. Further, it was found from the experimentation that the wear rate decreases linearly with increasing weight percent of silicon carbide. The best results have been obtained at 8 % wt SiC . We also observed that the yield strength, tensile strength increases with increasing wt% of SiC , but the ductility decreases.