ISSN: 1999-8716

Volume 7, Issue 3

Volume 7, Issue 3, Summer 2014, Page 1-130


EVALUATE THE DEPTH OF DESTROYED LAYER FOR REINFORCEMENT CONCRETE SAMPLES EXPOSED TO FIRE

Safie M. oleiwi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1-18

The behavior of reinforcement concrete slab dimension (500x500x150) mm and the cubes dimension (150 x 150 x 150 )mm samples are evaluated to the effect of fire according to the mix design concrete 40 Mpa compressive strength. The samples are exposited to the direct flame fire from down surface for three level of temperature degree (400,500 and 600) C° for one hour. After the samples are cooled to the normal degree of temperature, two non-distractive test are carried out: pulse velocity and shmidt hammer before and after the fire. Also the destroy layer depth is measured for the slab samples after the fire so the samples of cubes are prepared and tested after burning at the same circumstance which appear to slab reinforcement samples are purposed to found the change of the weight ,the compressive strength, pulse velocity and the number of rebound. The results indicate to (30%) reducing in compressive strength at level of temperature degree 400 C°, and (38%) reducing in compressive strength at level of temperature degree 500 C°, (48%) reducing in compressive strength at level of temperature degree 600 C°. The weight loss appear (0.5-0.55) %, (1.2-1.5) %, and (1.5-1.7) % for three level of temperature degree (400, 500 and 600) C°. Also, the atrsonic pulse velocity is decreased (62-68) %, (76-79) %, and (82-83) % for three level of temperature degree (400,500 and 600) C°.

BEHAVIOUR OF RETAINING WALL FOUNDED ON COLLAPSIBLE SOIL – A PROTOTYPE LABORATORY STUDY

Safa Hussain Abid Awn; Waad Abdulsattar Zakaria

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1-24

Retaining walls may be required in a location where gypsum may present in soil in large percentages .The behavior of retaining walls on ordinary soils is well known but the behavior of retaining walls resting on gypseons soils may be not well understood as the case of ordinary soils.
In this study it is intended to reflect the behavior of gravity retaining wall resting on collapsible soil. And to do so a small prototype model (600mm*500mm*200mm) is used with soil mixed in presumed percentages with different gypsum percentages (5%, 20%, 30%, 50%). In addition to a model with 30% gypsum and treated with 2.7% Cement dust mixed with soil founded retaining wall structure. After preparing the foundation gypseous soil, a small glass made retaining wall filled with sand, which represent gravity wall, is put over such bed and backfilled with ordinary sandy soil. Dial gauges are placed to side and top of wall to measure the rotation settlement behavior and collapse of system. 4kPa stress are applied to backfill soil as to accelerate collapse with leaching process commenced. Data are recorded and analyzed completely, which shows the behavior of such structures embedded with different gypsum content.
The improvement in rotation settlement and collapse for the retaining wall model reaches more than 89%, was gained after treating the embedded gypseous soil layer, with 2.7% cement dust.

STUDY OF SAFE SEPARATING DISTANCES BETWEEN THE NEWLY CONSTRUCTED BUILDINGS AT MOSUL UNIVERSITY TO PREVENT FIRE PROPAGTION BY RADIATION

Ahmed A. Alfakhry

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 19-31

The current constructional development in Mosul University have shown some problems related to the selection of buildings sites and distances between them, particularly in providing safety and preventing spread of fire by radiation from one building to another.
These distances depend largely on the area of unprotected openings (windows & doors) at the building facades and the severity of the expected fire which in turn depends on the type of building occupation whether it was residential, commercial, industrial or buildings of assembly.
Codes and international building regulations and researches related to fire safety addressed this problem and listed a number of methods to calculate these distances based on specific variables.
This study deals with examining these distances through selecting one of these methods on specific bases to be applied on a selected sample of newly constructed buildings at Mosul University and then compared these calculated distances with the real distances.
The study showed that there is a clear difference between distances which were calculated according to the selected method and the real distances, which refers to the neglect of this planning and designing aspect, finally the study listed some possible design solutions.

THE MANAGEMENT OF ATM NETWORKS CELL MULTIPLEXING USING NEURO-FUZZY CONTRROLLER

Nazhat S. Abdul-Razak; Omar A. Mohamad; Dina H. Shaker

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 25-44

In this research a fuzzy neural network is proposed so, fuzzy mechanism and adaptive neuro fuzzy mechanism are designed and simulated to control the (flow rate) control action on cell multiplexing in (ATM). The cell flow rate on the output of neural- fuzzy controller. Has been simulated depending on the input variables, one of these inputs is the queuing message (message length), the second one is the number of inputs, and third is the type of massage. These input variables are used to build the fuzzy rules uses (FNN) as its condition and the control action as its consequence, combines these rules to represent the model or system. NN is used as a training algorithm to learn the weights of fuzzy system. The simulation process has been executed by using (MATLAB). In the light of this research, it is apparent that NNS and fuzzy logic based systems can play an important role in the control of cell multiplexing in (ATM) network, since they can provide adaptive model free, real time control to the user.

STUDY THE EFFECT OF ADDING DIFFERENT RATIOS OF IRON AND ALUMINUM OXIDES ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND THE SOFTENING TEMPERATURE OF A LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

Afaf Ali Hussein; Muammar Ibrahim Ismail; Athraa Hussein Hachem

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 32-42

This research aims to study the effect of adding Iron Oxide Fe2O3 and Aluminum Oxide Al2O3 on mechanical properties of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), where various weight percentages of the oxides of (1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10%) were used.
To investigate the effect of adding oxides on the mechanical properties of (LDPE), Compression test was performed and the ultimate compression test was determined, then the softening point was measured.
From the results reached it was concluded that the best compression strength was recorded at 7% addition of Iron Oxide, while for the Aluminum Oxide the highest compression strength was recorded at 5%.
Also it was found that the relationship was directly proportional between softening point and oxide percentage.
It was noticed that the adding of the oxides up to 10% results in decreasing of the formability during compression.

DETERMINE AND ANALYZE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRESS AND THE NUMBER OF CYCLES FOR LOW CARBON STEEL ALLOY FOR VARIOUS SURFACE TREATMENTS BY USING CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

Abdul-jabar saad jomah; Zainab Allawi Ibrahim; Hussein Ali Hussein

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 43-56

In this research used correlation analysis in determining the strength and type of correlation between fatigue stress and the number of fatigue cycles while the sample failure reaching to Fatigue Limit, for low carbon alloy steel for various surface treatments as well as determine the effect of treatment surface on this relationship.
The Win QSB Program has been used in determining the strength and type of correlation between fatigue stress and the fatigue cycles number. results of the present work show that there is a strong negative relationship between stress and the cycles number of fatigue machine for four groups vary depending on the surface treatment respectively: - alloy steel without treatment is strong negative relation =-0.8934, negative & very strong relation = -0.9343 in case of shoot penning treatment, negative & very strong relation= -0.9375 in case nitriding treatment, negative & very strong relation = -0.98 in case shoot penning &intruding.

BEHAVIOR OF REACTIVE POWDER CONCRETE COLUMNS UNDER ECCENTRIC COMPRESSION LOADING

Yaarub G. Abtan

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 45-64

The strength of concrete columns is controlled by the strength of the material and the geometry of the cross section. The use of Reactive Powder Concrete RPC technology has proven most popular with superior strength, stiffness and durability being the major advantages. An experimental investigation was carried into the behavior of RPC columns subjected to axial load with initial eccentricity. Twelve columns were prepared with 120mm square section at the midsection and were hunched at the ends to apply eccentric loading. The specimens were tested up to failure to evaluate the effects of the variation of the concrete type (normal or RPC), presence of steel fibers and longitudinal steel ratio. Experimental data on strength, lateral displacement and failure mode was obtained for each test. The comparative analysis of the experimental results showed that the use of RPC caused substantial variation in the ultimate strength and failure modes. Also, inclusion of steel fibers in RPC was an effective way to prevent spalling of the concrete cover and increase the ductility, as well as, high ratio of longitudinal reinforcement delays the buckling of the columns and increases strength.

PSO-BASED TUNNING OF PID CONTROLLER FOR SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR

Ibrahem S. Fatah

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 65-79

In this paper, a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller of DC motor is designed by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) strategy for formative optimal PID controller tuning parameters. The proposed approach has superior feature, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristics and very good computational performances efficiency. The DC Motor Scheduling PID-PSO controller is modeled in MATLAB environment. Comparing with conventional PID controller using Genetic Algorithm, the planned method is more proficient in improving the speed loop response stability, the steady state error is reduced, the rising time is perfected and the change of the required input do not affect the performances of driving motor with no overtaking.

EFFECT OF ADDING COPPER FOILS ON SEAM WELDING JOINTS OF 304 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL

Ammar Azeez Mahdi; Salih Kareem Waheed; Abdul-Wahab Hassan Khuder

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 80-91

The aim of this work is to study the effect of adding copper (C10200 AISI) foils on the welding joint of the austenitic stainless steel type (AISI 304).The austenitic stainless steel has low weldability by resistance welding where the concentrated current causing a high thermal expansion. Due to heat stored, non-complete fusion, burn throw, warp edge and distortion of weldments even when change machine settings. So to solve this problems a copper strips used as a filler metals between the stainless steel sheets, these problem disappears, because of that strip will be act as a heat sink and no burn through; but complete fusion, uniform weld.

MEDICAL IMAGES SEPARATION AND FUSION BASED ON ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

Auns Q. H. Al-Neami; Cinan Kanaan A.R. Al Khuzaay

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 92-105

- During the last few decades, the field of medical image processing has been closely related to neural network methodologies and their applications. In the present investigation a 512×512 Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images for different region of the brain are registered to eliminate the dimensionality differences between the two images, then separated both of them by fast-fixed point algorithm after truncation of each image in to almost 1000 image patches of 15×15 dimension and transform them to 1-D and order them into row-wise fashion as well as reducing the entered data of lesser interest by Principle component analysis (PCA), finally applying the fusion process using different methods. The result shown that the differently defined brain regions can be separated using batch approaches for both CT and MRI and could be a powerful and accurate diagnostic tool, especially, for surgical and radiotherapy, planning and oncology treatment after a suitable fusion process is carried out on it.

CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTIES OF EPOXY/POLYSULFIDE COMPOSITE MATERIALS REINFORCED BY CARBON NANOTUBES

Adnan Nemaa; Ibtihal Abed Al-Razaq; Ekhlas Edan Kader

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 106-119

In this research, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used to enforce the blend of epoxy /polysulfide and then tensile and wear behavior of this reinforcement were evaluated. For achieving this goal, different weight percentages of MWCNT (0.2–0.6 wt %) were dispersed in the epoxy resin then polysulfide resin is added and mixed with two curing agents. Experimental results have shown significant difference between epoxy/polysulfide and CNT /epoxy /polysulfide in mechanical properties. With 0.2–0.6% MWCNTs we observed an increase in Young’s modulus from 245 to273 MPa, tensile strength from 30.5 to 38.9 MPa and fracture strain from 12.4% to 14.2%. For understanding the structure and morphology of nanocomposite, the dispersion states were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM).

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TYPE-2 FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLERS FOR THE POSITION CONTROL OF A DC SERVO MOTOR

Mohammed Z. Al-Faiz; Mohammed S. Saleh

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 120-130

Uncertainty is an inherent part in controllers for real world applications. In this paper we compare the performance differences between type-1 and interval type-2 fuzzy logic (IT2FLC) controllers, with five and three term membership functions. The controllers are used to control a PM DC motor in a closed loop real time system. The performance of system with each controller to a step is recorded. The results showed that there is a statistical difference between the fuzzy logic type-1 and type-2 controllers. It is also found that a type-2 five term controller is as good as a type-1five term or type-2 three term controller.