ISSN: 1999-8716

Volume 7, Issue 4

Volume 7, Issue 4, Autumn 2014, Page 1-143


USING PROGRAMS IN DESIGNING D.C GENERATORS

Arif Jassim

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1-19

A program in Visual Basic was designed and used to design D.C generators. The variables and constants of design were chosen within certain limits to reach optimum design such as: Main dimensions, efficiency, power, windings …..etc.
Some packages were used to assist the main program such as Grapher and excel programs. The designs results consist of 69 items cover all the design needs.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MOBILE COMPUTING SIMULATOR

Hayam A. Al-Yasiri; Nyan D. Sallman

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1-23

The Rapid progress in communications and wireless technology, especially in mobile computing, resulted in wide area of development in design, control and simulation of protocols that manage the wireless network. In this paper, a software simulator package has been designed, implemented and analyzed to simulate Internet Mobile Host Protocol (IMHP), Multicast Routing Protocol (MRP) and Handoff operation, which feature both route optimization and integrated authentication of all management packets.
The simulator coverage area includes three extendable subnets (LANs) with ten mobile hosts moving either randomly or manually over the network. The moving hosts have the ability of entering or leaving the network at any time. The designed simulator simulates all the predicted events that practically associated with mobile computing operation. In addition, the simulator stands for other events such as the rebooting or crashing in the network elements.
The simulated protocols are tested in terms of the speed of implementation, which computed throughout the designed simulator operation for both IMHP and MRP protocols. Also the effect of Handoff process on the mobile protocols implementation has been tested. The obtained results showed that the short cut route exhibits the fastest speed of implementation. Visual Basic programming language has been used in the design of this simulator.

EFFECT OF ADDITION ALUMINA ON SOME PROPERTIES OF HIGH FUSING PORCELAIN PREPARED FROM KAOLIN DWEKHLA, ARDUMA GLASS SAND AND POTASSIUM FELDSPAR BY USING EXPERIMENTAL METHOD

Mohammed Qasim Salman

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 20-26

This research investigates manufacturing of Porcelain samples by using Dwekhla Kaolin, Arduma glass sand, Potassium Feldspar in addition to add some Alumina. Alumina is considered as one of the most significant components that can be used to improve the physical properties of ceramic components which is the main aim of this study.
Samples have been formed by using semi dry compressing then, they have been sintered at 1300 oC. The study shows that by adding Alumina the Porcelain product properties have improved up 18% of the added Alumina percentage. By increasing the percentage more than 18%, as the study shows, the product properties began to drop, because Alumina forms feldspar liquid phase, but increasing the amount of Alumina more than 18% leads to keep some of it (Alumina) un melted , because it needs a high sintering temperature

DESIGN OF FRACTIONAL ORDER PID CONTROLLER BASED PARTICLE SWARM

Abdelelah Kidher Mahmood; Bassam Fadel Mohammed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 24-39

Fractional order PID (FOPID) controller is a special kind of PID controller whose derivative and integral order are fractional rather than integer which has five parameters to be tuned. This paper presents study of the implementation of tuning method and performance enhancement of the closed loop system by use of the fractional order PID (PIλDμ) controller utilizing a MATLAB/Simulink. The tuning methods for these type controllers have many mixed tools of the available optimization methods and update artificial optimization methods in the design. In this paper particle swarm optimization has been implemented to design FOPID controller in which the unknown parameters are determined minimizing a given integral of time weighted absolute error (ITAE). The main specification of this paper is that the all five parameters of (PIλDμ) have been found directly without spreading the steps. It has been shown that the response and performance of the closed loop system with FOPID controller is much better than integer order PID controller for the same system and with better robustness.

USE OF BACTERIA TO SELF-HEALING CONCRETE CRACKS

Amer M. Ibrahim; Adnan N. Adnan N. Abdul Redha; Murooj M. Sana

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 27-36

The aim of the study was to using of bacteria to self-healing of cracks in concrete, and this study was the first of its kind in Iraq. This study used bacteria Bacillus Subtilis isolated from agricultural soils and dry soil, and has the cultivation and development in the selective medium SR-20, underwent tests, biochemical and diagnose bacteria and according to the (Bergys Manual & Medical Bacteria), where conducted laboratory tests preliminary to know the ability of these bacteria to address cracks concrete in terms of their ability to withstand factors existing in the form of concrete, including the pH baseband through development in the selective medium SR-20 with a pH baseband (PH=10), and tolerance of salinity when planted in the precipitation medium SM-7 containing chloride Calcium, also was testing Preparation Material treat cracks for the deposition of calcium carbonate crystals.
The results also showed that the best way to prepare material treat cracks concrete to precipitate calcium carbonate are using the method consisting of silica + bacteria concentration (15×10), where results showed test ultrasound acoustic difference in the time it takes the wave to pass through cracks treatment in the experience of substance treatment consisting of silica + HCl + bacteria concentration (15 × 10), and the time it takes the wave to pass through the cracks of treatment in the experience of substance treatment consisting of silica + bacteria concentration (15 × 10), where results showed that Article therapy were completely rigid in the last test. The test results also showed scanning electron microscopic examination (SEM) create calcium carbonate to treat cracks material consisting of silica + bacteria.

OPTICAL FIBER BRAGG GRATING TEMPERATURE SENSOR

Marwan L. Yousf; Ihssan A. Kadham; Tahreer S. Mansour; Khalil I. Hajim

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 40-46

In this work, uniform Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) temperature sensor system were implemented and investigated due to measurement of the Bragg wavelength shift. An (FBG) is an optical fiber in which the refractive index in the core is perturbed by Germanium, forming a periodic index modulation profile. When light is guided through a fiber granting, it is scattered at each diffraction plane, except at those wavelengths which satisfy the Bragg resonance condition
An important application of FBG technology is sensing. The reflected wavelength from the FBG depends on physical properties such as temperature. By integration the FBG with broadband light, the shift in peak reflectivity wavelength can be used as a measure for the temperature.
It has been shown from the results that the FBG is very sensitive to variations in temperature degrees and the sensitivity was (1pm/0.1°C), also observed from the results, the relation between the shifted Bragg wavelength and temperature degrees was linear.

MEASUREMENTS OF CORONA DISCHARGE IN NON UNIFORM FIELD FREON GAP

A. S. Hasaani; Hassan J. Mohammed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 47-61

Corona Discharge have been recorded in pin-to pin electrode at gas pressure gaps with high degree of non-uniformity electric field. For a wide range of experimental applicability the pin to pin electrode was used over pressure range from 1bar to 3bar and gap spacing from 0 to 5mm.
High –pressure dc corona discharge experiments have been carried out in a 16cm long glass chamber with an inner diameter and outer diameter are 16.8cm, and 19cm respectively. Corona onset voltage and breakdown voltages were reached. The design considerations of the setup allow to use pin to pin electrode type geometries.
Electronegative gases such as air, Freon (R22), were separately used for low temperature corona generation. The experiments have been carried out under ambient Laboratory conditions of temperature (19-24 oC), and humidity. The present experiment were studies the relation between the (V-P) and (V-d), on other hand, we study the relation between the current and applied voltage.

DESIGN, MODELING, AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PIC BASED ELECTRICAL WHEELCHAIR

Mohannad Abid Shehab Ahmed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 62-81

Nowadays, voice is one of the methods commonly used to control the electrical and electronic appliances because of easily being reproduced by human.
Many people with disabilities do not have the dexterity necessary to control a joystick on an electrical wheelchair, so the aim of this study is to control access to voice services and to implement a wheelchair using small vocabulary word recognition system.
The HM2007 IC serves as the ear that will listen and interpret the voice command, while the PIC18F458 serve as the brain of the system that will process and coordinate the correct output of the input command to control the wheelchair motors.
The methodology adopted is speech recognition development for isolated word from independent speakers where any speaker has two different sentences first for training and the second for testing to release the operation.
The input of the system is a set of pick up five words used to control the movements of two motors connected to PIC 18F458 which is used as a programmable and controllable device, the speed of the motors is adjusted using the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) technique where the duty cycle is simultaneously varied according to input switching device.
For more efficient design, the system can worked in worst condition that could be achieved in noisy environment with different signal to noise ratios, besides that the electric power supply can utilize the solar cells.
Finally, the proposed system is implemented and tested upon a data base consists of ten speakers (6 males and 4 females) and its performance rises the algorithm efficiency and reduce the execution time with 97% noiseless overall accuracy.

EFFECT 0F SOIL REPLACEMENT ON COLLAPSIBILITY OF FOOTING RESTING ON CALCAREOUS SAND- A PROTOTYPE STUDY

Waad Abdulsattar Zakaria

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 82-98

Soil replacement technique is not a new method to improve a soil stratum possessing poor strength properties. Before, such a problem of facing a location with weak soil properties is simply solved by changing that spot of estate by another one. Nowadays, such a proposal is no longer valid as a solution since the finance of real estates is rising considerably so that altering a location to the favor of other is not a choice. Calcareous soils are soils rich of calcium carbonate which occur manly in the semiarid subtropics for both hemispheres. This soil is one of the famous collapsible soils similar to the well-known gypseous soils. It has very good strength properties when dry, but once wetted it undergoes large and almost instantaneous settlement, potential collapse of productivity, even if there is no additional load applied on it. This research is concerned in studying the effect of soil replacement technique in reducing collapse settlement. A laboratory prototype model is used in study using SW soil mixed with different percentages of calcium carbonates, and gradual replacement of calcareous soil with sand is carried out in terms of width of footing B. Each model is leached for continuous seven days, and time-settlement data are recorded. This is done again for different percentages of calcium carbonate ratios mixed with sand. Laboratory tests revealed that the degree of improvement in terms of settlement for replacing B/2 depth by sand is 0.36 (B is footing width), that for replacing B is 0.65, for replacing 2B is 0.88, and for replacing 3B is 0.92. The amount of CaCO3 in soil does not affect the degree of improvement observed. An empirical formula is derived using finite differences for relating degree of improvement with depth of soil to be replaced.

CHARACTERIZATION CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF NANO ALUMINA COATINGS ON Al12Si FABRICATED BY ELECTROPHORETIC DEPOSITION

Abdul jabbar Saad Jomah

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 99-114

This paper compares the corrosion behavior of Al2O3 coatings produced by Electrophoretic technique to Nano-sized alumina coatings on aluminum alloy surfaces by using a well dispersed stable suspension produced by addition of Al2O3 powder plus a small amount of water and iodine to ethanol. Electrophoretic deposition for (2,3,4 and 5) min at (50-60) V resulted in formation of a uniformly dense film on the top, The maximum defect-free sintered thickness by EPD allowed us to obtain coatings as thick as 7 µm. The protective behavior against corrosion and the corrosion kinetics of the produced films were studied through polarization resistance (PR) measurements in aggressive media (sea water). The corrosion resistance with sintering to 400C° with 2hours holding time has decreased the corrosion current density (about 32μAcm2) when compared coatings without sintering for coatings produced by EPD. Moreover, alumina coatings present an excellent resistance in sea water. AFM observations suggest that coatings produced by EPD are homogeneous and defect-free. The aim of this work has been to prepare thick Al2O3 coatings deposited by EPD in order to increase the corrosion resistance of aluminum substrates. The corrosion resistance of the coatings has been evaluated through electrochemical methods as a function of different processing parameters: final thickness of the coating, applied voltage, and deposition time.

THEORETICAL DESIGN OF MIMO TRANSCEIVER AND IMPLEMENTATION ITS TRANSMITTER USING FPGA

KHALID AWAAD HUMOOD; ADHAM HADI SALEH; IL A. H. HADI

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 115-131

The use of multiple transmit and receive antennas (MIMO system) is widely accepted in recent years, as a promising technology for future wireless communication, to achieve higher data rates independently of transmission power and bandwidth, with improve system reliability through increasing diversity. This research presents the design and implementation of a multiple antenna wireless communications system using Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) .The proposed design based on Alamouti’s transmit diversity scheme which is a space-time block code (STBC) with two transmit antennas and an arbitrary number of receive antennas. The implementation demonstrates the space-time code in a baseband system with two antennas for transmitter and receiver. The encoding and decoding algorithms are implemented using VHDL, Spartan 3A / 3AN is used to implement transmitter part, where the Virtex2P is used to complete the receiver part design theoretically. Finally the design MIMO systems are implemented successfully.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK MODEL FOR MANAGING AND FORECASTING WATER RESERVOIR DISCHARGE (HEMREN RESERVOIR AS A CASE STUDY)

ABBAS M. ABD; SAAD SH. SAMMEN

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 132-143

The prediction of different hydrological phenomenon (or system) plays an increasing role in the management of water resources. As engineers; it is required to predict the component of natural reservoirs’ inflow for numerous purposes. Resulting prediction techniques vary with the potential purpose, characteristics, and documented data. The best prediction method is of interest of experts to overcome the uncertainty, because the most hydrological parameters are subjected to the uncertainty. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach has adopted in this paper to predict Hemren reservoir inflow. Available data including monthly discharge supplied from DerbendiKhan reservoir and rain fall intensity falling on the intermediate catchment area between Hemren-DerbendiKhan dams were used.
A Back Propagation (LMBP) algorithm (Levenberg-Marquardt) has been utilized to construct the ANN models. For the developed ANN model, different networks with different numbers of neurons and layers were evaluated. A total of 24 years of historical data for interval from 1980 to 2004 were used to train and test the networks. The optimum ANN network with 3 inputs, 40 neurons in both two hidden layers and one output was selected. Mean Squared Error (MSE) and the Correlation Coefficient (CC) were employed to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed model. The network was trained and converged at MSE = 0.027 by using training data subjected to early stopping approach. The network could forecast the testing data set with the accuracy of MSE = 0.031. Training and testing process showed the correlation coefficient of 0.97 and 0.77 respectively and this is refer to a high precision of that prediction technique.