ISSN: 1999-8716

Volume 8, Issue 1

Volume 8, Issue 1, Winter 2015, Page 1-152


EVALUATION THE EFFICIENCY OF GAS AL- SHAMAL WATER TREATEMENT PLANT

Abdulrazzaq kudher Abdulwahed; Edaan Ibrahim Ghadban; Rawdhan Abdullah Saleh

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-12

This study gives a description for the units and components of water treatment plant of Gas AL- Shamal Company. The study aimed to evaluation the efficiency of the plant through testing physical and chemical characteristics of raw water and treated water, then comparing with the characteristics of Iraqi drinking water standards. The study showed that the plant was efficient for turbidity and total suspended solids removal. The results appeared that characteristics of the total dissolved solids (T.D.S.), total hardness (T.H.), electrical conductivity (E.C.), chloride (Cl), and sulfate within the characteristics limits of Iraqi drinking water standards for raw and treated water. The results also show that the (pH) values were out of suitable values of flocculation materials. The fluoride values of raw and treated water were low within the standards.

PREPARATION AND ADSORPTION STUDY (MONO AND DI- VALENT IONS) OF SELECTED TYPES OF ZSM-ZEOLITES.

Ramzy S. Hamied; Moayed G. Jalhoom; Shahrazad R. Raouf

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-15

Experimental studies have been carried out on three types of crystalline zeolites which were prepared and used as supports catalysts. All were synthesized in the laboratory (ZSM-5, -11, and –23) with SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 37, 86 and 94 respectively. The adsorption process was investigated to characterize the catalysts performance toward adsorption parameters (percent of extraction and distribution factor). The performance of catalysts was studied over the range of temperature (room, 50 and 80 ºC) for mono and di-valent ions respectively (H+, Li+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Sr+2 and Ba+2). The prepared catalysts exhibited that the percent of extraction and distribution factor for both mono and di-valent ions (H+, Li+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Sr+2, and Ba+2) used on adsorption increase with increasing temperature and also showed different to the framework structure and type of ions used. The maximum percent of extraction and distribution factor is in the order ZSM-11˃ ZSM-5˃ ZSM-23 respectively.

STUDY THE MECHANICAL PROPERITIES OF ALLOY (Al-22%Si) FUNCTIONALLY GRADIENT PRODUCED BY THE VERTICAL CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

Hussein Ali Hussein

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-28

This research is devoted to prepare a functionally graded material (FGM) by using vertical centrifugal casting method and to study the effect of the rotational speed of casting mold on the microstructure and hardness of a hypereutectic (Al-22%Si) alloy. Therefore, the melt was overheated to (850) Cº and poured in the centrifugal casting mold after preheating to (115) Cº. Then casting was carried out at different rotational speed (625, 1027, 1144, and 1907) r.p.m. The results showed, increasing mold rotational speed due to increasing the average volume fraction in the inner layer from cylinder thickness and decreased in the intermediate and outer layer also decreased the grain size of primary silicon. The results of wear tests showed that the maximum wear resistant was found in the inner layer from cylinder thickness at a rotational speed of (1907) r.p.m, and then the outer layer but minimum wear resistant was in the intermediate layer. The results of hardness tests showed that the maximum hardness was found in the inner layer from cylinder thickness, and increased with increasing mold rotation speed and then outer layer and intermediate layer.

EFFECT OF ANNEALING ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BRASS ALLOY TYPE C38500

Zuhal A. Kabash

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 16-26

The effect of annealing process on microstructure and mechanical properties of brass C38500 according to UNS was studied. The test samples were heated to (450, 500, 550 and 600) °C for 1 hour and in a furnace. The samples were cooled gradually to the room temperature.
The microstructural change during annealing was studied by using optical microscope and mechanical properties such as tensile strength, yield strength, hardness and torsionl test were also studied.
From the obtained results it was observed that annealing has a little effect on the microstructure and it reduces the mechanical properties (tensile strength, yield strength, hardness) as a result of elimination of the brittle phase or internal stress in microstructure, but it improves the torsional strength and increases the number of twisting angle it is also found that the annealing at (600)οC gives the best torsion test.

STRAIN MEASUREMENT BY USING PHASE MODULATED FIBER OPTIC SENSORS TECHNOLOGY

Riadh Adnan Kadhim

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 27-41

This paper deals with simulation using (MATLAB) of optical fiber strain sensor employing the phase modulated technique in order to design a model for the Michelson interferometer, this paper also deals with the implementation of interferometer technique is considered and simplified because it has the ability to convert phase modulation to intensity modulation, in addition it has the ability to perform modulation frequency of interest signal which is equal to the optical frequency of the source.
Thus by using this technique the detection of the signals of interests is achieved. The obtained results of sensor are done by varying the applied forces of sensing element, having various core diameters and calculating the strain. Also the result shows that the fiber optic Michelson sensor is very sensitive to measure the structural strain.

CRITICAL AND IMPORTANT FACTORS RELATED WITH ENHANCING WIRELESS COMMUNICATION USING MIMO TECHNOLOGY

Soukaena H. Hashem; Hassan H. Saleh

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 42-63

This research propose analyze, simulate, test, and determine the optimal performance of cited three critical and important factors related with enhancing wireless communication using MIMO technology, for simulations throughout proposed work will employing Rayleigh flat and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) was the first factor simulated, to evaluate it is performance relating with the direct parameters presents the base bone of OFDM architecture such as OFDM model, channel types, FFT size, constellation and modulations. Secondly a simulation of channel capacity factor was done to assess the performance of capacity relating with SISO, SIMO, MISO, and MIMO. Finally from single antenna to multiantenna techniques was tested, to evaluate Bit Error Rate (BER) performance by using different receive and transmit diversity techniques have been simulated and tested for SIMO and MISO systems. Furthermore, different diversity techniques based on MIMO system have also been simulated and tested. All of these techniques are compared numerically and graphically with the BER performance of SISO system, in addition to their comparison with each other, by using various numbers of antennas. From proposed analysis, simulation, and testing of these three factors and their related parameters many of recommendations are obtained to set parameters of the three factors to build high performance PHY layer with wireless communication using MIMO technique. The implementation proposal was done under Matlab programming language.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INDUCTION FURNACE

Isam M. Abdulbaqi; Abdul-Hasan A. Kadhim; Ali H. Abdul-Jabbar; Fathil A. Abood; Turki K. Hasan

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 64-82

The design of a certain induction furnace for a certain application depends mostly on empirical formulas and experience. The purpose of this work is to use the Finite Element Method (FEM) approach to perform an electromagnetic-thermal coupled analysis for a suggested coil with certain billet and studying its performance during the heating period. This will lead to the ability of expecting the required coil current and its frequency, to heat certain part of a certain billet to a certain temperature at the predetermined time. Then, the simulation results can be used to build the coil and leads to design the power supply for the induction furnace. The practical measurement of the designed system agrees with that of the theoretical design results. Hence, this approach assists to reduce the design cost, time and efforts for any other required induction furnace.

STUDY OF DRUG FORCE AND THE FLOW FIELD ON ROAD VEHICLES

Khalid M. Sawoud

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 83-97

Improving road vehicles performance needs to deep understanding the science of aerodynamics, in order to control flow field by means of active and passive control techniques. The airflow behavior when passes over the road vehicles surfaces will be changes in patterns and resulting in different pressure regions. This pressure region causes drag force and thereby increases in fuel consumption of the road vehicles.
This paper include experimental study to investigate the effect of road vehicles for three most common rear end configurations design such as (square, notch and fastback) on drag force, drag coefficient and pressure distribution. The experiments were carried out an open, low speed, and three dimensional wind-tunnel, on geometrical similarity to the prototype (Audi 80 1987) in scale down (1:18) wooden models for four different velocities (11.31, 13.86, 17.89 and 22.98) m/sec.
The results obtained from the wind-tunnel investigations showed that the drag force increases with the increasing of free-stream velocities. The minimum drag coefficient can be achieved with fastback configuration, comparing with the other tested models and result in approximately 16% and 48% lower than that for notch and square back configurations, respectively. These results are demonstrated by the pressure distribution curves which provide a deep understanding of the flow behavior above the tested models.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF OP-AMP-RC SINE WAVE OSCILLATOR

Khalid Awaad Humood; Adham Hadi Saleh; Wurod Qasim Mohamed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 98-109

The oscillator is a form of frequency generators which can be generate a sinusoidal wave with constant frequency and amplitude. The frequency oscillator can be considered as a one of basic circuits, which must be existing in most electrical, electronic, communication circuits and systems.
In this paper, a proposed design of sine wave oscillator type RC phase shift has been performed using three approaches. The first approach proposed design is done theoretically using the basic theorems used to generate oscillations, such as the condition of oscillation criteria. Secondly it is done using simulation technique (multisim11). Thirdly the simulated design is implemented practically using single operational amplifier with passive elements such as resistors & capacitors. All the obtained results from the above three approaches (3.800 kHz, 3.510 kHz & 3.600 kHz respectively) are seems to be equal approximately. These obtained results from the designed oscillator were very encouraging.

ANODIZING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOY AZ31 BY ALKALINE SOLUTION

Basheer Ahmed A

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 110-119

Anodizing of AZ 31 Mg alloy was investigate in 3M KOH solution for 10, 20 and 30min. at constant voltage of 5V. Atomic force microscope (AFM) used to investigate the roughness of anodic film formed on the surface while the scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to determine the morphology of the anodic film, it was found that the roughness of the anodic film is mainly depend on the anodizing time. Coating thickness. Furthermore, the microhardness also increases with the anodizing time.

SOLAR WATER DISTILLATION (REPRODUCTION FRESH WATER FROM DIRTY WATER)

Mohammed Faiq Mohammed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 120-133

This paper presents the design of a solar distillation still for the reproduction of fresh water, safe to drink without any stuck impurities, from different samples of dirty water drawn from 5 sources (river, well, bilge water, pool & lake), in addition, two water samples prepared by adding NaCl and sugar to tap water, in order to show the effect of them on the distillation process. Also, the designed solar still is used as a collector to rain water, when it is used in rainy days.
The experiments were carried out within 10 hours for each mentioned sample. The amount of each drawn water was 20 litters as a standard for comparison between samples and their results, after distillation. The distilled samples were adopted after two hours for each one. The results were varied from one sample to another, but the successed samples are graduated as sweet water, river, well, pool, and lake, respectively. While the failure samples are salted water and bilge water, not proper for drinking.
This procedure was adopted to reproducing drinkable water in the semiarid areas or deserts, where there is no source of drinking water just one of the above mentioned sources. The results were analyzed and showed that 98.4% pure water is resulted from sweet water, 86% for river, 84.5% for well, 78% for pool, 76.7% for lake, 57.6% for salted water and 53.8% for bilge water. The remained percentages, as obtained in analysis, were the stuck impurities, slush, salinity, and toxicity. Finally; besides sweet water, river and well; pool and lake could be used as a proper source of drinking water.

DESIGN OF STATE FEEDBACK CONTROLLER BASED BACTERIAL FORAGING OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR

WISAM NAJM AL-DIN ABED

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 134-152

The aim of this work is to design state feedback controller based on bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) technique for speed control of separately excited dc motor (SEDM). The social foraging behavior of Escherichia (E. Coli) bacteria has been used to optimize the controller performance by tuning it's parameters (state feedback controller gains K1 & K2).The SEDM state space model is simulated using MATLAB simulink toolbox. The SEDM is loading for different loads ranging from no-load to full-load to test the controller behavior and it's robustness for wide range of loadings variations. First the SEDM is simulated with feeding back the angular speed only (output feedback system), second is simulated with feeding back the armature current and angular speed (state feedback system). For both systems the controller's gains are tuned using BFO. The proposed controller results are compared with output feedback system results. The results show the superiority of state feedback controller based BFO versus output feedback system based BFO for SEDM speed control which leads to improve the transient and steady state performance of speed responses for SEDM with different loads.