ISSN: 1999-8716

Volume 8, Issue 4

Volume 8, Issue 4, Autumn 2015, Page 1-908


USE ALTERNATIVE RAW MATERIALS FOR CONCRETE PRODUCTION

Jaleel Al Robayie; Hutheifa Jasim Al-Azzawy; Sultan Noori Al-karawi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1-12

In line with the development in the construction sector and continuous need for many of concrete structures that meet the need of continuous population increase in Iraq. It became necessary to think in concrete construction to be more economical through the use of alternative raw materials in concrete production. Also it helps to rid of materials that cause environmental problems.
The first objective of this paper is to produce concrete less expensive. Second, reduce pollution of the environment in terms of using a type of glass which cannot be recycled in other industries. This type of glass will be used as a raw material in the concrete production instead of cement or sand by specific rates.
Research results were carrying a good indicator about compressive strength when using a glass powder instead of cement; especially when the glass was grinding at a more time. When the compensation ratio instead of cement was 20%, and using glass was grinding by 16 hour; the results were a good. They were (31.99, 44.9, 51.64) MPa in age (7, 28, 56) respectively, compared with standard samples which were (22.4, 36.51, 43.2) MPa .

SLOPE STABILITY EVALUATIONS BY FINITE ELEMENT METHODS IN DIFFERENT SOIL PROPERTIES

Jasim M Abbas

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 13-19

This paper deals with slope stability assessment carried out by regularly used finite element (FE) methods. The study utilizes based software (PLAXIS). The main objective obtain from this study is to simulation and analysis of slope in case of different soil properties. Due to complexity for modelling different soil condition in previous studies, this study aims to solve this problem in this kind of condition. It was conclude that, the sandy soils observed high displacement compared other soils. The deep sand and deep clay resisted more than the normal soils like sandy soil and clayey soil.

REGRESSION SHARING MODEL DEVELOPMENT TO ESTIMATE THE IRAQI LOCAL AIRPORTS FUTURE DEMAND

Raquim Nihad Zehawi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 20-28

The market share technique has long been used in forecasting air travel demand. It usually necessitates very good awareness of each airport within the group encompassed by the airport system which is intended to be analyzed. It requires a good comprehension of each airport's demand history and the perfect distinction of its market area. In this paper, an econometric model has been developed to estimate the local Iraqi airports shares of the national aggregate air passengers' demand. Each airport market area was assigned according to the airport vicinity and the local authority jurisdictions. The model depended on the socio-economic characteristics of these market areas in estimating their shares, provided that these characteristics are reliable and the market area borders are well defined. The model provided the capability of estimating the shares of newly established airports like Najaf International Airport despite the fact that it does not have historical data. , it was found that the most influential socio-economic factor affecting the market share of air passengers are the urban labor force and the population density factor.

SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE (SVM) FOR MODELLING THE STRENGTH OF LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE

Abbas M. Abd; Suhad M. Abd

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 29-36

In construction industry, strength is a primary criterion in selecting a concrete for a particular application. Concrete used for construction gains strength over a long period of time after pouring. The characteristic strength of concrete that considered in structural design is defined as the compressive strength of a sample that has been aged for 28 days. So rapid and reliable prediction for the strength of concrete would be of great significance. Prediction of concrete strength, therefore, has been an active area of research and a considerable number of studies have been carried out.
In this study, support vector machine model was proposed and developed for the prediction of concrete compressive strength at early age. The variables used in the prediction models were from the knowledge of the mix proportion elements and 7-day compressive strength.
The models provide good estimation of compressive strength and yielded good correlations with the data used in this study relative to nonlinear multivariable regression. Moreover, the SVM model proved to be significant tool in prediction compressive strength of lightweight foamed concretes with minimal mean square errors and standard deviation.

EVALUATION OF SHALLOW GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN ZHENGZHOU AREA (CHINA) USING WATER QUALITY INDEX MODEL

Bassam F Al Bassam; Rusul K. Taher

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 37-45

Water shortage and pollution are serious problems which are limiting sustainable development of the society and economy in Zhengzhou area. Due to its importance the Water Quality Index (WQI) model was used to classify groundwater in Zhengzhou according to its most beneficial use. Sixty-three groundwater samples from shallow wells were chemically analyzed to calculate WQI values. The results show that high quality groundwater for irrigation use (WQI>75%) exist in thirty three wells, fifty two wells in the area have high quality and are suitable for livestock drinking, and thirty eight wells can be used safely for domestic purposes. The spatial distribution maps for different groundwater classes show that better groundwater quality can be found in porous Quaternary aquifers in the alluvial plain, alluvial flat and flood plain of Yellow River. Results also show that the model can be conveniently used to evaluate the water quality and classify groundwater in Zhengzhou area.

STABILIZATION OF SALINE SOILS BY DIFFERENT ACTIVE TECHNIQUES

Safa Hussain Abid Awn

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 46-60

Saline soil scattered wide range of Iraqi territory. Its presence causes engineering problems, which arising for Structural sons erected thereon, due to collapse behavior, when moisturizing with water from any source, due to the rapid melting of the salt molecules surrounding soil granules, leading to the disintegration of the ties of the soil.
This study sheds light on the possibility of stabilizing saline soil, using a layer of graded sand with 140 mm thickness, mixed with some available additives:(1%, 3%, 6% of Fly Ash with polyester), (1%,3%,6%, 10% of Emulsified Asphalt),(5% and 10% Bentonite), (1.5% and 3% of Lime material)l, (2% and 5% of Cement material), with and without reinforcement. and investigates its effects on the collapsibility of such problematic collapsible soil. The soil used in this study was natural saline soil with 10% salinity retrieved from a region near Jurf Al-Milih region, in Diyala governorate. Number of tests was conducted using laboratory model of thick container with 400mm height and 300mm diameter.
The best improvement was achieved by using a layer of graded sand mixed with 10% Bentonite. This technique reduces the collapsibility to 96%. While mixing the graded sand layer with (5% cement, and 14.2% of randomly distributed waste ferrous materials), reduces the collapsibility to 94%.

PUNCHING SHEAR BEHAVIOR OF REACTIVE POWDER CONCRETE SLABS WITH DIFFERENT SHAPE

Tamara Adnan Qaseem

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 61-73

This research presents an experimental study of punching shear strength of reactive powder concrete (RPC) square and trapezoidal flat slabs. Reactive powder concrete is an ultra-high strength and high ductility composite materials in form of a super plasticized cement mixture with silica fume and steel fibers.
Six reduced scale reinforced concrete slab specimens divided into two groups (square and trapezoidal slabs) were casted and tested in this study.
Each group consists of three specimens which are identical in size and shape but contains different percentages of steel fibers (0, 0.5 and 1) % of total volume.
Results indicated that, punching shear strength increases by about (62.5 and 100) % in square slabs and is about (8.3 and 41.7) % in trapezoidal slabs containing 0.5% and 1% of steel fibers respectively.

HYDROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN KANAN REGION

Qassem H. Jalut; Fatan R. Majeed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 74-82

Diyala governorate faces water resources deficiency due to the limited amount of rainfall, drought, and water pollution of Diyala River in addition to the irrational use of water by the residence. The study area (Kannan region) located north east of Baqubba the capital of Diyala governorate depends partially on groundwater as a source of water to meet both agricultural and domestic uses of the region. Several pumping wells has been used for that purposes especially where the surface water is limited. Recently, the surface water has been blocked by transfer it away from the region which enforced residence to relay completely on groundwater. The need of profound hydrochemical study of the region ground water resource become imminent to insure proper groundwater withdrawal and monitor groundwater quality for different uses mainly agricultural and domestic uses. The current study is directed toward investigation of the usability of groundwater for agricultural and domestic uses.

FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF STEEL FIBER-SELF COMPACT CONCRETE SLABS

Murtada A. Ismael

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 83-99

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is one of the most important developments in concrete technology. Although SCC has high performance, but it like normal concrete in being brittle material with low tensile strength and poor fracture energy, therefore, steel fibers can be added to SCC to increase tensile strength, improve stiffness, improve fracture energy and improve flexural and shear strength. This research presents experimental study to investigate flexural behavior of steel fiber-self compacting concrete two way slabs. The experimental program include testing eight slabs to study effect of steel fibers volumetric ratio on normal and high strength SCC, effect of flexural steel reinforcement ratio and effect of compressive strength of SCC on flexural behavior. It is found experimentally that, the improvement in high strength SCC in terms of first crack load, ultimate load and ultimate deflection is less efficiency than that of normal strength SCC, however, as steel fiber increases from 0% to 0.8% in normal strength SCC, the first crack load, the ultimate flexural strength and the ultimate deflection increased with percentages (51.4%, 24.7%, and 30.8%) respectively, as compared with nonfiberous SCC slab, while the increases in high strength SCC were(18.2%, 19.2%, and 17.1%) respectively. Also the results showed that steel reinforcement and compressive strength has significant effect on flexural behavior of steel fiber-SCC slabs.

MEASUREMENTS OF SUCTION AND WATER CONTENT DURING SATURATION OF COMPACTED EXPANSIVE SOIL

Bushra Suhail Al-Busoda; Hassan Obaid Abbase

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 100-109

The change of climate gives fluctuation of water content in its result rain, evaporation, rising water ground level and evapotranspiration. The expansive soil will volume change and suction. This behavior can damage on construction structures especially, roads and light building. The phenomenon is very interesting to be researched, how far the effect of water content change and variation suction toward the behavior volumetric swelling expansive soil. This paper presents results of measurement of swell percent, water content and total and matric suction under gradual and controlled moisture intake using dial gages and filter paper .It was found that the suction decreases with increase water content. The results showed that the greater swelling the smaller total and matric suction. The study showed that approximately a linear relationship between the suction with water content.

INFLUENCE OF HEAD ELEVATION ON THE STABILITY OF EARTH FILL DAM, FADA DAM AS A CASE STUDY

Ali Laftah Abbas

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 110-120

In the present study, slope stability and seepage are analysis for Al-Fada dam. Two software's (Geo-Slope/w and SEEP/W) using Bishop method and finite element method are adopted for stability and seepage calculations, respectively. The usual procedure in the stability analysis of slopes is to calculate the safety factor of various assumed slip surfaces, and then to regard the slip surface having the smallest safety factor as critical. four cases of water level are consider in analysis of slope stability of dam. The final conclusion is the body of the dam and its foundation is safe for the effect of seepage through the dam and foundation, also the analysis of the results of this study showed that Al-Fada earth dam is safe against the danger of piping and slope sloughing under all case of water level.

BUILD A MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION MODEL FOR THE SELECTION OF A CONTRACTOR IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

Hafiz Ibrahem Naji

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 121-133

The current study provides a methodological framework to regulate the perceptions of decision-makers to take various criteria including increases Foundation benefit and provide them tool supportive of the resolution represented technology FAHP)) to choose the appropriate contractor so that the guide is the right choice without a bias factor, or the existence of personal interests and in foggy conditions. This technique can be applied in the early stages of the referral process to avoid non-qualified contractors participate in the competition for the business process at hand, and according to the employer's requirements. It was extracted most of the criteria that could affect the process of selecting the optimal tender by conducting personal interviews with relevant subject matter of the owners of expertise as well as a field survey in order to identify the main criteria and sub relative importance of each criterion that can be relied upon in the process of evaluating and selecting the optimal contractor. It includes the main criteria (the financial side, the technical side, the management side, the legal side and the reputation of the contractor, the environmental side) and all the standard of the main criteria contain sub-criteria its example the financial side that contains five criteria a subset (the bid amount, the financial situation of the contractor, insurance work, the availability of financial resources, the burden of current business).

ANN AND STATISTICAL MODELLING TO PREDICT THE DEFLECTION OF CONTINUOUS REINFORCED CONCRETE DEEP BEAMS

Abbas M Abd; Wissam D Salman; Qusay W. Ahmed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 134-143

This comparative study investigates the adoption of artificial neural networks and statistical modelling in the prediction of the deflection under ultimate strength of continuous reinforced concrete deep beams. All experimental data collected from the literature covers a case of a continuous deep beam with two point loads acting symmetrically in each span. The data set consist of many input parameters cover the geometrical and material properties. The corresponding output value was the deflection under ultimate strength of the continuous deep beam. The model takes into account the effects of the effective depth, shear span-to-depth ratio, length of one span, section width, ratio of reinforcement, and compressive strength of concrete cubes. Training, validation and testing of the developed neural network have been achieved using a comprehensive database compiled from 75 continuous deep beam specimens. The results show high correlation through using ANN modeling with 99.13% and 97.27% for extended and original data set. This model was compared with the multi-linear model which was of 81.16% correlation coefficient. Both model reflect high correlation with observed data and proved that they can be used to predict the deflection of deep beam with high degree of confidence.

THE CORROSION EFFECT OF SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA ON REINFORCED HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE

Amer M. Ibrahem; Adnan Neama; Saja M. Muhsen

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 144-156

This study deals with the ability of the sulfur reducing bacteria to cause corrosion in reinforced concrete .The susceptibility of those bacteria to cause corrosion in reinforced concrete has been tested by using models manufactured in laboratory of construction tests of the college of engineering University of Diyala. where they were studying the effect of bacteria on the high strength concrete mix by using ordinary and sulfate-resistant cement and reinforced iron of 16 mm in different positions. The corrosion effort of reinforced concrete has been measured using a half-cell potential equipment. The effect of sulfur reducing bacteria on the high strength concrete mix with the use of sulfate-resistant cement has been less than its effect on the high- strength concrete mix with ordinary cement by 13%. This is due to the little amount of Mono ammonium tri-silica in high strength concrete and the paucity of porosity in the high strength concrete mix which leads to interference of effect between them and restricts the activity of the bacteria. Then, samples of mild iron have been used and the capacity of bacteria to cause corrosion have been studied with help of electronic scanning microscope.

FUTURE PREDICTED DYNAMIC MODEL URBAN GROWTH FOR BAQUBAH CITY

Ali Hussein Hameed; Zainab Ahmed Al-kaissi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 157-171

Baqubah city is witnessed during the last decades a fast urban expansion because of the rapid economic growth. Which had its negative effect on the environment of the city through the sprawl of the expansion on the rural areas and the orchards surrounding the city. The objective of the research is to produce dynamic model and land use map of Baqubah city through employing the capabilities of Dinamica EGO software with assisted Arc GIS (Ver.10), remote sensing techniques ERDAS (Ver.13).No previous attempts have been taken to produce this model for study area.
The classified maps are used in the dynamic model to calibration, validation and simulation to get the finial simulation model in 2050 year by ten-sequence step of models. The maps of 2004 and 2010 are used for the transition probability matrix. The simulated map for the year of 2010, when compared with the real map, reached rate of similarity to 81.5 %. The simulation scenario for the year 2050 showed an increase in the medium residential, high residential and road by (40.2%, 104.4%, and 23.9% respectively). As well as a significant decrease the orchard, vegetation, water, open area and mix by (52.2%, 48.4%, 35.6%, 29.7%, and 12.5% respectively).

THE CONSEQUENCES OF POOR QUALITY ON PROJECT MANAGEMENT SUCCESS OF BUILDING PROJECTS

Samiaah M. Hassen Al-Tmeemy; Wadhah amer Hatem

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 172-182

The occurrence of building failure and collapse has become a major issue of concern in construction building projects as the magnitudes of this incident are becoming very alarming. This paper therefore aims to investigate the contractors’ viewpoint on the consequences of poor quality in building projects in terms of non-conformance to requirement, cost overruns, and delays. Quantitative method is adopted to collect data from G6 and G7 building contractors within Kuala Lumpur using questionnaire surveys. The study indicated that the cost overrun is the most frequent consequence of quality failure. The findings of this study provide financial justification for all quality improvement efforts.

SOFT GROUND SUBSIDENCE PREDICTION OF HIGHWAY BASED ON THE BP NEURAL NETWORK

Qasim A. Aljanabi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 183-188

Soft clay ground subsidence data of highway embankment Ipoh project in Malaysia use to build Back-Propagation artificial neural network model. The forecasts of soft ground subsidence final settlement find then comparing results of soft ground subsidence final settlement, then comparing the predict results with curve fitting hyperbola method, the curve method, three-point method forecast results. It turns out that neural network can avoid the human factors of interference from traditional methods, gaining high precision.

EFFECT OF HEATING ON SHEAR STRENGTH IN WASTE PLASTIC LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BY USING A NEW TEST SPECIMEN

Khattab Saleem Abdul-Razzaq

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 189-210

The re-use of plastic waste as an alternative to partial volume of sand in the concrete rids Iraq of harmful waste plastic piles as well as reduces demand for natural sand and dependence on remote sand quarries. Moreover, encourages lightweight concrete (LWC) production, which reduce the loads and increases the efficiency of the insulation. Certainly, when speech is going about the waste plastic, it should go through its weak point, which is heating. This study aims to investigate the shear properties (with different ratios of longitudinal steel reinforcement) of both structural & non-structural waste plastic LWC before and after heat exposure. This study involves many trails in order to determine the efficiency of reusing waste plastic in the production of both structural & non-structural waste plastic LWC. A special new test specimen is presented here by the researcher called W-Shear Test specimen (WST) in order to achieve aims of this study. Twenty-four of W-ST specimens are cast in this study. They are divided into six groups; each group consists of four W-STs. In every group, three W-STs out of these four are reinforced with different longitudinal steel bars in order to investigate the failure behaviour. W-STs are cast from normal weight concert (NWC), structural and nonstructural LWC and tested before and after heat exposure to 200oC. These tests include slump, fresh density, dry density, compressive strength, tensile splitting strength, flexural strength, Young’s modulus, in addition to shear capacity (P) and slip (D) of W-STs. The results of this study support the re-use of plastic waste as a sand volume substitution of fine aggregate to produce LWC that resists shear stresses after heat exposure.

MATHEMATICAL DRIVING MODEL OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS IN STATIONARY COORDINATE FRAME

Ahmed Ibrahim jaber; Husham Idan Hussein

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 255-265

In this paper mathematical analysis for a design three-phase induction motor. Three phase AC induction motors is popular in manufacturing for many reasons. It is quite simple and minimum costs are favorable. It does not have brushes and requires minimum maintenance. In this paper a mathematical development to three-phase AC induction motor by using matrix form. The development applying on model of a real drive of 1.1 kW motor has been achieved. To analysis the axis, three-phase coordinate (A, B, C) to a two axis (β - α) as a (stationary part) representation. Through this drive conversion torque and speed can be controlled easily and control optimization induction motors. MATLAB/ SIMULINK is used to simulate the model of (IM) as tool and for study of characteristics of the motor.

IMPROVEMENT OF POWER AND VOLTAGE QUALITY IN POWER SYSTEM DISTRIBUTION USING FACTS (SVC & DSTATCOM)

Ali Najim Abdullah; Mayyadah Sahib Ibrahim

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 266-276

Power quality is one of the important fields in the electrical power and distribution system. In order to reduce the power losses and improve voltage level in electrical power and distribution system, Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices used to achieve that with a suitable way. FACTS devices in the last years used to solve many of power system problems. The FACTS controllers offer a great opportunity to regulate the power flow and responding almost instantaneously to the stability problems. In this paper static VAR compensator SVC and static synchronous compensator DSTATCOM used as a shunt devices connecting on the buses and injecting the VAR to improve reactive power Q. The FACTS devices applied on radial power distribution system 24-bus Electrical Iraqi super grid, some of these are laterals. The power flow simulator was used as tool to simulate this system and all the results are achieved and discussed.

OFF-GRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION WITH HYBRID RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES IN IRAQ: AN APPLICATION OF HOMER

AMMAR ISSA ISMAEL

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 277-286

The current power system in Iraq used fossil fuels that effect an environmentally, also the power generated does not cover the power demand. In the other hand, to reduce the gap between the generation and the power demand suggested renewable energy alternative sources adding to power system, renewable energy is zero pollution. The purpose of this proposal is to find the preferable hybrid technology combination by a hybrid renewable energy resources for electricity generation to satisfy the electrical needs in a reliable manner of an off grid choosing small town, Bald Ruz in the state of Diyala, Iraq as case study. Three renewable resources, namely, solar photovoltaic systems, wind turbines, with natural gas generator are considered. The software used HOMER that offers optimal solution from the types of resources. The proposal estimates COE of energy of the optimized system is $0.998/kWh for stand-alone and $0.2/kWh for hybrid grid system.
The PV system represents around 42% of power production small percentage for wind turbine that reaches to 6%.

TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MACHINES USING THE D,Q TWO-AXIS THEORY AT TWO DIFFERENT REFERENCE FRAME SPEEDS (STATIONARY AND SYNCHRONOUS)

Assama Sahib Jafar

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 287-296

Induction machines modeling has continuously attracted the attentions of researchers not only because such machines are made and used in larger numbers i.e. (80% of all the electrical loads), but also due to their varied modes of operation both under steady state and dynamic state. The theory of reference frames has been effectively used as an efficient approach to analyze the performance of the induction electrical machines.
In this paper a generalized model of a three phase induction motor is implemented (arbitrary reference frame), two speeds reference frames were used (synchronous and stationary), it uses case studies to demonstrate that the choice of the reference frame speed depends on the problem to be solved.

AUTOMATIC GENERATION CONTROL IN MULTI AREA INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEM USING PID CONTROLLER BASED ON GA AND PSO

Ghassan Abdullah Salman

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 297-310

The goal of paper is to maintain the frequency and tie line power changes are maintained at their scheduled values, so in this paper presents two methods for determination of the optimal (Proportional-Integral-Derivate) PID parameters for Automatic Generation Control (AGC) of the three areas (non reheat thermal-reheat thermal-hydraulic) interconnected power system, the first is the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the second is the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The GA and PSO are applied to search for the optimal PID controller parameters to minimize various performance indexes as objective functions. These objective functions namely Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and Integral Square Error (ISE) are considered for optimization.
The performance of the intelligent controllers based on GA and PSO has been compared with tie line bias control strategy, the settling time, maximum deviation and peak time with the proposed controllers are better than the outputs of the tie line bias control strategy. From combination sets (GA-IAE, PSO-IAE, GA-ISE and PSO-ISE), GA-IAE and PSO-IAE have better settling time and lesser peak time when compared with GA-ISE and POS-ISE while, GA-ISE has lower maximum deviation when compared with other sets.

PATTERN RECOGNITION OF DEFECTIVE BONES X-RAY USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

Hanan Badeea Ahmed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 311-321

Recently, the applications of Pattern Recognition involved in many fields, starting from scientific research, medicine, reaching to the crime recovery by pattern recognition of finger imprints. For any bones doctor, bones X ray represents very useful and important part in the diagnoses level, sometimes it should be the key in surgical operations. This paper merges the two fields (pattern recognition and bones medicine) by training simple artificial neural network using back propagation algorithm to recognize five normal and five defective bones X ray images and then evaluates the recognition accuracy. From the training of network, it's clear that a higher number of hidden neurons increase the processing time. The shape of images plays an important role in recognition process. It's obvious that the network should choose the minimum number of hidden neurons such that it still determines the maximum performance of the network

OPTIMAL ECONOMIC DISPATCH BASED ON ARTIFICIAL BEE COLONY TECHNIQUE FOR IRAQI NATIONAL GRID

Hanan Mikhael Dawood; Younis M. Nsaif

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 322-330

Economic dispatch (ED) in power system is one of important optimization problems for determining and providing an economic condition for generation units. The nonlinearity of this problem makes conventional methods unable to determine a fast and robust solution, especially when the power system contains the highest number of generation units. In this paper, optimization technique called Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) is used to solve economic dispatch problem in power system. ABC based on the behavior of bees to search for food sources. The obtained results are compared with the conventional method using test system. It shows that the ABC algorithm approach is more feasible and efficient for finding minimum cost. Therefore, ABC approach has been applied for Iraqi National Grid. The proposed methods are executed in MATLAB environment

MODELLING AND CONTROL OF ARTERIAL OXYGEN SATURATION IN NEONATAL INFANTS

Lafta Ismaeel Jumaa

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 331-342

This paper presents design a closed loop oxygen controller for the supplement oxygen to the newborn infant. The most problem for premature infants is respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), also called neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, or respiratory distress syndrome of newborn. Due to Respiratory Distress Syndrome, the infant requires mechanical to increase the inspired oxygen. We must keep the range of the Arterial Oxygen Saturation (

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS FOR POWER SYSTEM NETWORKS

AHMED MAJEED GHADBAN; Mohamed Waleed Abdulwahhab

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 343-354

:- In this paper analysis to electrical power network design under applying many types of a short circuit on lines and buses. In order to maintain the continuation of power supply to all customers which is the core purpose of the power system existence, Short circuit problem is one of the most important and complex task in electrical Power Engineering. The studies and detection of these faults is necessary to ensure that the power system is reliable and stable. The severity of the fault depends on the short-circuit location, and the path taken by fault current, the system impedance and its voltage level. In This paper analyzes the behavior of a system under fault conditions and evaluates different types of faults. Power world simulator was used to simulate IEEE30- bus. All results achieved and discussed.

SPEED CONTROL OF (SEDM) ADOPTING CHOPPER CONVERTER AND PI CONTROLLER

Mohammed H. Ali

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 355-364

This paper describes speed control of separately excited DC motor (SEDM) adopting Chopper converter and PI as speed and current controller. The chopper firing circuit receives signal from controller and then chopper gives variable voltage to the armature of the motor for achieving desired speed. There are two control loops, the first for controlling current and the other one for speed. Modeling of separately excited DC motor is done. The complete layout of DC drive mechanism is obtained. The designing of current and speed controller is carried out. The optimization of speed controller is done using modulus hugging approach, in order to get stable and fast control of DC motor. After obtaining the complete model of DC drive system, the model is simulated using (MATLAB/SIMULINK).The simulation of DC motor drive is done and analyzed under varying speed with load torque conditions like rated speed and load torque, half the rated load torque and speed, step speed and load torque and stair case load torque and speed.

COUPLING AND DECOUPLING SECONDARY D-Q CURRENTS BASED BRUSHLESS DOUBLY-FED RELUCTANCE MACHINE

Mohammed Saadi Hassan

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 365-375

The paper presents the comprehensive study about the Coupling and decoupling behaviour occurs on Brush-less Doubly Fed Reluctance Machine ‘based voltage and flux oriented control which are realized mathematically. The main motivation for studying this project is the relative simple control strategy and optimising Brushless doubly fed performance. The presence of (dSPACE) application is considering the first requirements for real time implementation RTI simplified and proof the different method algorithms to cover the necessary change occurring in deferent speed mod based vector control VC which is considered the one of qualified control application matching with FOC Approach.

OPTIMAL NETWORK RECONFIGURATION OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS FOR IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE IN TERM OF POWER QUALITY USING BAT ALGORITHM

Nesrallh Salman

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 376-385

Power quality is considered as one of the most important issue in power distribution systems. Voltage sag is considered as one of the most common power quality problems. It may cause sensitive equipment to malfunction and process interruption. In this work a method of optimal network reconfiguration is proposed to mitigate voltage sag problem in power distribution networks. It is applied to a distribution network in a specified period (usually one year) to minimize the number of propagated voltage sags (Nsag) index. To find the optimal reconfigured network, Bat algorithm (BA) as optimization technique is used. To validate the proposed method, a practical distribution system (section of Malaysian grid) is used. The simulation results show that it is effective to apply the proposed technique in mitigating voltage sag problem in practical power distribution systems.

NEW SYMMETRICAL MULTILEVEL INVERTER WITH REDUCTION OF SWITCHES

Rokan Ali Ahmed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 386-393

New symmetrical multilevel inverter topology with reduced number of power electronic switches is introduced in this paper, which results in reduction of installation area, converter cost, losses, and have simplicity of control system. The proposed topology consists of series connected sub multilevel inverter blocks. Principles of operation and switching functions are well analyzed. Simulation results are provided for seven levels inverter to validate the proposed theory.

POLARIZATION PROPERTIES OF VERTICAL-CAVITY SURFACE-EMITTING LASERS SUBJECT TO VARIABLE OPTICAL FEEDBACK POLARIZATION ANGLE

Salam Nazhan; Z. Ghassemlooy; K. Busawon

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 394-400

In this paper, the influence of variable polarization angle (θ_p) of optical feedback (OF) on the polarization properties of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is investigated experimentally. Parallel polarization optical feedback (PPOF) and orthogonal polarization optical feedback (OPOF) are employed, where the polarization light is re-injected back into the laser. For the PPOF (OPOF), polarization of the feedback light is parallel (orthogonal) to the polarization light of solitary VCSEL. With respect to PPOF, no polarization switching (PS) occurs over the entire range of〖 θ〗_p. However, when apply both the PPOF and OPOF PS takes places for a fixed OF level and at certain value of〖 θ〗_p with increasing bias current (I_b). Furthermore, when increasing 〖 θ〗_p PS occur for a fixed OF level and bias I_b. The results show that a variable polarization optical feedback technique is an effective tool for controlling the polarization instabilities of VCSEL.

Design and Implementation of a control and high precision Protection System for traditional and modern production machinery

Zena T. Abdulkareem; Nasir I. Haded; Ayad Q. Abdulkareem

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 401-416

The problem which this research tries to solve is: the sudden change in the incoming electric power from where voltage raises and drops, phase failure, phases reverse with each other's and the fast electric trip. So that this sudden change can directly affect negatively on the production machines especially on its electronic and programmed control units, and causes too many damages which led to interrupt or stop the production line in addition to waste money, time and efforts. Especially after the imported Protection Systems deficit in spite of its high quality manufacturing. All the enquired studies and electric – electronic schematics had been completed in order to perform manufacturing his system by the researchers using the available materials in the local markets.
The research aim to find a final solutions to those problems through designing and performing an electric system which let and prepare a controlling and high accuracy and protection, since it will cut the electric power back manually after causative disappears.
This electronic system had been checked and evaluation by a professional academic committee for College of Engineering/ Diyala University and got an acceptance for the purpose of its manufacturing with a high qualification in protecting the traditional and the programmable production machines.
The manufactured system had been to protect fully the machines productivity and the results were excellent, with no repeated breakdowns where the crash rate because of the sudden change of electric power reduced by (95%). The research team concluded that the validity of the manufactured system for the protection of pre-emptive production machines full ramifications. In this system it is designed have achieved the desired results, especially overcome the problem of rapid line trip unlike traditional systems used.

Reduce no- load losses of Electrical Transformers By Increasing The Number Turns Of Coils

Riyadh Noman Madhloom; Nariman Khalid Hashim

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 417-429

Accompanied transmission and distribution process of electric power several types of losses in power first is called the transport losses resulting from resistance transport wires result the passage of the current and the second the result of the work of electrical transformers and it divided into two categories called a loss of load result of resistance wire electrical coils and the second no- load losses resulting from the use of iron in the transmission of magnetic flux between transformers coil which are divided into two main sections hysteric losses and eddy currents losses
The specialists have treated all losses problems above through the use of transformers to reduce energy transmission losses (decreasing current and increasing voltages) and reduce thickness of Iron strip to reduce losses of eddy currents and improve the material and processing methods to reduce the hysteric's losses
In this situation the product integrated with a problem is caused by high no-load losses and can not change the iron core material or specifications (thickness or sectional area), adversely affecting the ability to compete with other companies where the value added to the price of the transformer as a result of the energy losses be $ 1800 per kilowatt for no-load losses and $ 600 per kilowatt of load losses
For the reasons above, the researchers detected a theory scientific study based on the following equation
B = (V / N) / (4.44 Ac f)
This equation linking number of windings (N) and operating voltage (V), as well as sectional area of the iron core (Ac) and frequency system (f) and the magnetic flux density (B) which is associated with no-load losses positive relationship
To change the value of the flux density by the above equation can only by changing the values of (N & Ac) because the values (V & f) of the electric grid constants
So the researchers increased the number of windings (N) to reduce the value of the flux density (B) to reduce no-load losses without changing the value of sectional area (Ac) because the change requires changing the entire production moulds
It was conducted laboratory tests of (Diala General Company for Electrical Industries) that showed that no-load losses for transformers produced after the development of a lower than 150 watts for transformers previously produced

EDGE DETECTION-APPLICATION OF (FIRST AND SECOND) ORDER DERIVATIVE IN IMAGE PROCESSING

Abdulbasit Alazzawi; Husam Alsaadi; Abidaoun Shallal; Saad Albwi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 430-440

Edge detection is one of the most frequently used techniques in digital image processing. Edges typically occur on the boundary between two different regions in an image. In this paper the first method we will find the edge for image by using (1st Order Derivative Filter ) method. In this method we take the 1st derivative of the intensity value across the image and find points where the derivative is maximum then the edge could be located. The gradient is a vector, whose components measure how rapid pixel value are changing with distance in the x and y direction. In second method we use the (2nd Order Derivative Operators) .
The 2nd derivative of an image where the image highlights regions of rapid intensity change and is therefore often used for edge detection zero crossing edge detectors. The zero crossing detector looks for places in the Laplacian of an image where the value of the Laplacian passes through zero i.e. points where the Laplacian changes sign. The criteria that used to comparison of results is (Root mean square error ) for different threshold values that explain the result obtain by 2nd order are best of the result obtain by 1st order for all values of threshold.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A REMOTE SENSOR-BASED ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM USING PIC-MICRO CONTROLLER

Mohammad S. Saleh; Zeyad Assi Obaid; Zuhair S. Al-Sagar

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 441-452

This project presents the Design and Implementation of Access control System using PIC Microcontroller. The design is coded and implemented using MikroC language for the purpose of implementation inside the PIC Microcontroller. This design consists of a remote sensor which is used to detect the feedback signal. Automatic door system is used as an industrial application for the access control system where presented by this paper. The automatic door system model is designed and implemented with PIC-16F877A micro controller, laser sensor and DC motor and custom designed structure for its automatic door system. MikroC programmer is used to test the design codes, and Protus Simulation program is used for the purpose of simulation for the schematic of the design. The design needs maximum clock frequency of 4 MHz. Therefore, the proposed design will be able to cover a wide range of applications with a high sampling rate. Enhancements are made for the design to decrees the memory size in order to get fast execution time. The used ROM is 600 Byte (7.3%) from 8191 Byte and the used RAM is 93 Byte (26%) from 368 Byte of the memory size of PIC Microcontroller. Experimental results show a fast execution time for detecting the interrupts of the remote sensor. Therefore, the proposed Access Control System can be used with different industrial applications. It is very convenient system for consumers and has extensible and flexible characteristics. It can also be used for home doors with additional sensor devices.

CONTOUR PROCESSING OF TEXTURE IMAGES

H.M. ALZAKKI; V.YU. TSVIATKOU

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 453-461

A new approach to video coding is presented, where video scenes are classified into textures with subjectively relevant and irrelevant details. We apply this idea to improve video coding by using a texture analyzer and a texture synthesizer.

DESIGN BROADBAND REFLECTARRAY USING E-SHAPED SLOT CIRCULAR MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

Abdulkareem S. Abdullah; Ramzy S. Ali; Musa H. Wali

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 462-470

In this work, a circular E-shaped slot microstrip patch element is investigated to design a reflectarray. The E-shaped slot dimensions are varied to study, reflection properties of the patch antenna. It is discovered that the reflection properties and phase range of the proposed element can be optimized using the E-shaped slot's dimensions. The element's resonance and full parametric analysis were checked using a modern microwave software tool was involved to simulate. A 340o phase range is achieved easily;it is enough to design a small-size reflectarrays.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TRACKING SYSTEM USING WIRELESS AND LASER TECHNOLOGIES

Ali Mohammed Kadhim

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 471-478

This paper describes the design and the implementation of a novel tracking system that does not depends on the use of GPS-GSM tracking techniques or radar systems. The designed tracking system integrates both of wireless signals in VHF frequency band and laser beams to realize the tracking principle of an object movement, such as vehicles or pedestrian movement within any areas to determine its position precisely by using low cost and easy to install modules. The designed system consists of three modules; the transmitter module, the analyzer module, and the central monitoring module. It was concluded that the designed tracking system can be used efficiently in urban areas with high buildings that prevents the propagation of GPS satellites signals, valleys in mountainous region, underground areas and desert lands that is not covered by GSM mobile networks

MULTIFACTOR AUTHENTICATION FOR SOFTWARE PROTECTION

Ali J. Abboud

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 479-492

Software protection is a mechanism to make software systems more difficult (or impossible) to be accessed by attackers. Such mechanisms are gaining more importance nowadays for increasing number of attacks on the software systems in the large internet networked environment. Hence, in this paper, two schemes are proposed to achieve effective software protection tools. They are based on the use of multifactor authentication techniques and steganography algorithms. Multifactor authentication techniques are used to strength access policy to the software intellectual property while steganography algorithms are utilized to make protected software imperceptible to attackers. Finally, conducted experiments have shown that developed schemes are able to provide immunity against illegal accesses by invaders.

LOW COMPLEXITY MULTILEVEL 2-D DHWT ARCHITECTURE

Saad Mohammed Saleh; Ammar Ebdelmelik Abdelkareem

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 493-500

In this paper an efficient multilevel 2-D Discrete Haar Wavelet Transform (DHWT) architecture is designed and implemented. The proposed architecture is introduced to compute multilevel 2-D DHWT for image processing applications. The key points of the proposed architecture are its low memory needs and low complexity.
It composes of similar units that can easily compound to decompose the input signal into any required level. The architecture utilizes 4L (L; is the number of decomposition levels) adders and 8M (M is the number of columns of the input image) register stages to perform three levels decomposition with 3+M clock cycles as an initial latency.
The proposed architecture is implemented using Virtex 5 Xilinx FPGA platform. The implementation results reveal that the proposed architecture can operate at up to 110 MHz clock frequency. High output accuracy is also introduced as 63-77 dB PSNR for three-level 2-D DHWT decomposition are obtained.

ESTIMATION AND PLOT OF ELECTRICAL FIELD USING FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD

Abidaoun Hamdan Shallal; Maather Abdulrahman Ibrahim; Mohanad Hasan Ali; Saad Qassim Fleh

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 501-510

Calculation of electric fields with the aid of an computer is now an inevitable tool in various electricity-concerned technology, in particular, for analyzing discharge phenomenon and designing high voltage equipments .The calculation of electric fields generally require higher accuracy, because the highest electric field stress on insulator is usually the most important and decisive value in insulation design or discharge study. This is one of reason why the boundary-dividing methods are preferred to the region-dividing ones, such as finite difference method (FDM) or finite element method (FEM).
The finite difference method is a powerful numerical method for solving partial differential equations. An FDM method divides the solution domain into finite discrete points and replaces the partial differential equations with a set of difference equations. Thus the solutions obtained by FDM are not exact but approximate. However, if the discretization is made very fine, the error in the solution can be minimized to an acceptable level.
In this research grid of finite difference method divided (N by N), N represents number of nodes. In our calculation we take many cases, each case contains specific number of nodes such (7, 15, 25). Then we estimate electric field for different charges values and their locations. We depend on equation (AX = b) .Where A matrix represents node values (depend on boundary condition and operating nodes), X matrix represent electric potential, b matrix represents charges values. X estimation using gauss sideral method and successive over relaxation method .Then we calculate residual which calculated by equation (residual = b - AX). Then we estimated and plot Vx , and Vy. We approve accuracy of our calculation by less quantity of residual, which mean X reach to exact solution.
Also we approve the residual value increased with number of nodes increase because we need to more calculations also the distance between charges increase.

SYSTEMATIC MAPPING STUDY ON MANAGING VARIABILITY IN SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINE ENGINEERING

Ahmed Khudhair Abbas; Saad Qassim Fleh; Haydar Hassan Safi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 511-520

Revision for literature and searching for the sources of an information in the different database are considered to be the most important pillar of the scientific research, whether a researcher, academic in preparing the scientific documents or any research. That is the most important part which helps the researcher in understanding any subject or research, besides it helps him to know the different opinions regarding the subjects, thus, it provides the researcher with the suitable and correct information that helps him to take the right decision regarding his study and knowing the possible ways he needs to. This paper has been prepared, according to the tables and charts showing the progress of the workflow that was chosen in the name managing variability in software product line engineering .the systematic mapping study process, it has gone through several stages in the first of, the search process automatic and manual in various databases IEEE Xplore, ACM digital library and other search engine, conference, relevant journals, etc.). All of them process provide snowballing papers. It provides (1450) papers and other types (book, technical reports, litterateur, others). Second stage we did screening of papers according to (inclusion, exclusion) criteria. And the subsequent process were filtering process produced (77) final papers after three filters ,distribution of primary studies coordinating years, classifications charts in to ( facet1, facet2, facet3), representation finding by using bubble chart mapping between domain and different types of our subject (classes of research, managing variability SPLE type) . The concluding remarks were after indexing (77) papers its relationship out of (1450) papers. These papers (77) provide to answer question relevant managing variability in software product line engineering.

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF MRSD USING THREE DIFFERENT CLASSIFIERS: A CASE STUDY OF NEWCASTLE - UK

Huda M. Salih; Nada M. Salih

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 521-537

Remote sensing data is an important data source that can provide valuable information about urban expansion and urban land cover and land use changes at various scales. Due to the increasing spatiotemporal dimensions of the remote sensing data, traditional classification algorithms may not be able to classify such data. In this regards, two key issues should be taken into account: firstly, the challenges of the images fusion of the optical multi-source remote sensing data (MRSD) to seek the possibility of improvement in classification accuracy for urban change mapping. Secondly, monitoring and detecting the change and the interrelationship between land cover and land use within urban areas are spectrally and spatially complex.
Therefore, this paper aims to test and compare three classification algorithms (maximum likelihood (ML), decision trees (DT), and support vector machines (SVM)) for their ability to infer and extract urban land cover/land use across five different years using Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+ and ASTER images. Image pre-processing and post-processing were conducted on each scene along five different dates to obtain classification maps of Newcastle city, UK. Thereafter, the three aforementioned classifiers were used and applied on the combined data, which contained thirty-three bands in order to evaluate their effectiveness at separating urban land cover/land use types.
The classification approaches were implemented using ERDAS IMAGINE 2013 and coding by MATLAB. The results indicate that the overall accuracy of three classification maps using ML, DT, and SVM classifiers was 71.09%, 73.05% and 83.20%, respectively.
The classification maps present significant enhancement in the spectral and spatial resolution using optical MRSD compared to the one source of remote sensing data.

INVESTIGATION ON OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF BILAYER GRAPHENE

Hamid. Toloue A.T; Bahar. Meshginqalam; Ahmed. K. Jameil; Mohammad. Taghi. Ahmadi; Anthony Centeno

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 538-545

In this paper, a theoretical study on the optical and electrical properties of bilayer graphene is presented. Graphene with a single atomic layer of carbon and outstanding optical properties is an ideal nominee on sensor application because of high surface-to-volume ratio. In this report optical properties of bilayer graphene nanoribbon (BGN) in the presence of applied bias for different incident wavelength are explored. (BGN) dielectric constant and refractive index based on its conductance are modeled theoretically and obtained results are simulated numerically. Based on the presented model applied bias effect on BGN optical parameters are discussed.
These results are relevant for applications of recently developed graphene based devices in advanced optoelectronics such as surface plasmon resonance sensors.

SEGMENTATION AND COMPACT MULTISCALE REPRESENTATION OF THE IMAGES BASED ON PROGRESSIVE BACKWARD CLUSTERING

O. M. ALMIAHI; V. YU. TSVIATKOU; V. K. KONOPELKO

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 546-556

Developed a method of segmentation and compact multiscale representation of images based on the progressive backward clustering. The method provides an accurate segmentation, multiscale representation and compression of the segmented images, adaptation to a limitation on the time of segmentation.

REAL TIME MACHINERY SAFETY MONITORING BY HYBRID FUZZY SYSTEM

Hussein S. Radhi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 557-567

Rotary machineries are basic components used in many industrial applications. A simple examples uses these machines are simple electric fans while complicated uses these devices included in missile and aircrafts.
The aim of this research is to develop an Intelligent Neuro-Fuzzy control algorithm to guide and control accurately these rotating devices so that it will detect precisely the faulty components during the operation or in both preventive and corrective maintenance procedures. This online intelligent monitoring algorithm classifies status of the device into three indicators :(Safe, Possibly damaged or Damaged). The processes of classification consider all input variables with high effectiveness on diagnostic output state. The contribution of this paper is to introduce novel intelligent monitoring and controlling algorithm that uses (Two) predicted indices instead of one as in the previous research articles.

ANALYSIS OF TEMPERATURE LIMITATION OF GRAPHENE SINGLE ELECTRON TRANSISTOR

Vahideh Khadem Hosseini; Ahmed K. Jameil; Mohammad Taghi Ahmadi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 568-573

The single-electron transistors are a key element of nano-technology and they are good alternative to field-effect transistors due to high operating speed and power. Function properly transistors is need to Coulomb energy 100kBT so they should be integrated below nano dimensions. Decreasing transistor size causes to temperature limitation and unpredictable changing in the spectrum of energy levels and its variation threshold voltage. In this paper, we have investigated this problem using graphene.

DEVELOPMENT OF A SERIAL COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL FOR SATELLITE ATTITUDE DETERMINATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM SIMULATOR

Mousa Kadhim Wali; Md. Hussein Baqir; Majid S. Naghmash

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 574-588

The purpose of this research is to design a valid serial communication protocol for satellite and developing Attitude Determination Control System (ADCS) simulator and on Hardware in the Loop (HIL) simulator by using digital signal processing dsPIC30F4013 board. ADCS subsystem consists of actuator, controller, sensor subsystem, and On Board Computer (OBC). These subsystem need to communicate between each other to control and determine the satellite attitude. The ADCS simulator is needed Because of the difficulties of satellite ADCS study in the space.
The development of this simulator is divided into microcontroller (MCU) integration in linear bus, HIL simulator, and analog to digital convertor (ADC). The HIL simulation is done through MATLAB to generate raw data which represents satellite attitude. A PID controller has been used as the control system for the satellite actuator.
ADC feature of the MCU is used to convert potentiometer analog value to digital which represents either satellite temperature or pressure value. Four MCU has been integrated together using RS485 bus with the implementation of token bus access. Cyclic Redundancy Check and checksum had been tested in the transmission.
The entire simulator design program has been done in C language and successful test results show that the research objectives has been achieved with 0.14 as an angle error in degrees with settling time 20s based on simple and low cost hardware with an overall 54.9s for data transfer, therefore these features considered as a contribution regarding too simple, fast and accurate satellite PID controller.

THREE ANTENNAS DESIGN USED BY ULTRA-WIDEBAND WIRELESS SYSTEMS

RASHID A. FAYADH; MASHAEL MATTI FARJO

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 589-598

As there are many challenges in indoor and outdoor wireless propagation, high gain and sensitive antenna design plays crucial role in ultra wideband (UWB) small size systems. In this work, a design of UWB printed microstrip antennas that fed by microstrip transmission line were presented and printed on a substrate Taconic TLY-5 material with relative dielectric constant of 2.2. The proposed antennas were designed to cover the area of UWB frequency range (7.5 GHz) to be suitable for applications of wireless communication systems. The antennas of printed patch shapes are; rectangular patch, circular patch, and as-shaped patch designs with the same dimensions of feeder and ground plane. The proposed antennas were simulated using a package of Computer Simulation Test (CST) microwave studio software through range of 2 to 12 GHz operating frequency. Simulation results and comparison for reflection coefficient (S11), radiation patterns, were presented and discussed over the UWB frequency. These results make the designs are very useful for UWB technology future applications because of the small size low cost.

QUANTUM CURRENT MODELLING ON GRAPHENE NANOSCROLLS

Mohammad Taghi. Ahmadi; Ahmed K. Jameil; Norollah Hedayat; Solmaz Mohammadpor

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 599-605

- Graphene has amazing carrier transport property and high sensitivity at the single molecule level which leads them as a promising material for biosensor application. In order to develop the new device types same as graphene nanoribbon, Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor (CNTFET) and Nanowire, it is essential to investigate of quantum limit in low dimensional devices. In this paper quantum current of Monolayer Graphene Nanoscroll (MGNS) is modelled and the electronic properties due to the dependence on structural parameter are analyzed. In addition 1D quantum transport coefficient based on the approximation of the wave vector relation for MGNS is presented.

FABRICATION OF CARBON NANOPARTICLE / POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITE BASED THERMOMETER

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 606-612

Carbon nanoparticles were grown in polyethylene between two copper electrodes by arc discharge method and Schottky contacts were created at both ends. Then we modelled MSM structure by thermionic emission theory and the temperature dependence explaned by the barrier in homogeneities. Experimental measurements are obtained in different temperatures and with smoke exposure. We have shown that our prototype device is extremely sensitive to temperature change so that its application in medicine, fire alarm systems and other fields is recommended.

NON-LINEARITY DISTORTION MITIGATION OF DOWNLINK-LTE SYSTEM USING MODIFIED AMPLITUDE CLIPPING AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN RANDOMIZATION

Montadar Abas Taher; Abidaoun Hamdan Shallal; Ilham Hameed Qaddoori

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 613-617

Wireless telecommunication systems are almost the most dominant field of the communication systems context nowadays especially the long-term evolution (LTE) system. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), has become the base for current and future communication systems, because of its capability to combat multipath and fading channels and its competency for high data rate transmissions. However, coherent combination of subcarriers leads to large power peaks with respect to the average power level; this is the so-called peak power ratio (PPR). Various methodologies are available in the literature, the simple approach is the amplitude clipping.
However, amplitude clipping causes in-band distortion and out-of-band-radiation, thus, the bit error rate (BER) performance will degrades dramatically. Taher et al (2014) suggested a new amplitude-clipping algorithm, where the core-clipping function was replaced with a non-distorting function, but the proficiency of reducing the PPR was not in the good extent. In this paper, the new clipping function will be supported by frequency-domain randomization operation, such that the coherent combination of the OFDM subcarriers will not stay in the same order, leading to lower PPR at the output of the power amplifier. Results show that the hybrid combination of the randomization process with the new clipping function produces lower values of PPRs. Thus, the proposed approach has gotten 1.5 dB more reduction magnitude in the PPR with respect to Taher et al scheme. The complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) was the tool to monitor the PPR performance behavior.

POWER ENVELOPE VARIATION IMPROVEMENT OF DOWNLINK LTE SYSTEM USING COMPLEX NUMBER MANIPULATION APPROACH

Montadar Abas Taher; Abdulmunem Ahmed Mohammed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 618-623

Today the world is witnessing very significant developments in the world of digital communications. For that, the subscribers are demanding for quality and speed for the available services. To achieve these objectives, must be accurate and low impurity communication devices available.
The orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme, is the downlink modulation scheme utilized in the long term evolution (LTE) system. Because of the coherent addition of the subcarriers, the output power variation will show high peaks compared with the average, known as Crest factor, thus, the amplification gain is degraded and intermodulation distortion will appears.
Different sorts of schemes have been introduced to mitigate these problems, but either on the expense of complexity or the bit error rate (BER) performance degradation. In this paper, a novel simple to implement algorithm suggested by the authors to mitigate the high Crest factor.
The suggested approach is based on complex numbers manipulation, by exchanging the real and imaginary parts, to destroy the coherence order of the OFDM subcarriers, leading to lower crest factor. Results show that the computational complexity and the reduction gain are improved significantly.

TEMPERATURE DETECTION BY CARBON NANO PARTICLE BASED SENSOR

Sadegh Ebrahimian; Ahmad Razmdideh; Ahmed K. Jameil; Mohammad Taghi Ahmadi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 624-631

In the presented work carbon Nano particle is fabricated by the arc discharge method and it is concluded that two factors of temperature rise and gas absorption are profound effect on the CNP current voltage characteristic. The effect of temperature variation on the electrical property of carbon nanoparticles with the adsorption of liquid gas is examined. It seems that the temperature rise causes an increase in the resistance and this is primarily because of increased scattering.

THE INFLUENCE OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON THE GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT PERFORMANCE

Sameer D. Ali; Saadoon Abdul hafed Jawad; Salim farman

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 632-640

In this paper a computer program is employed to evaluate the performance of a gas turbine power plant at a different ambient temperature. This is very important especially in Iraq, because of the wide range of ambient temperature variation throughout the year. The results show that the thermal efficiency of the plant decreases as the ambient air temperature increases, where the drop in efficiency is significant at higher temperatures, especially in summer season. So, it is very important to use a cooling system to control the ambient temperature for best performance. The study is done on a single shaft, simple cycle gas turbine power plant with maximum output power of 20 MW.

LOOK –AHEAD MODEL FOR HYBIRD TRUCK FUEL ECONOMY IMPROVEMENT, STANDARD AND REAL WORD DRIVING CYCLES’ CONDITION

Ahmed Al-Samari; Nigel Clark; Ahmad Abu Jrai

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 641-656

In the presented work, the vehicle propulsion controller (VPC) for parallel hybrid truck model has been modified to manage auxiliary power in advance based on the forthcoming traffic information. To simulate standard and real world conditions, constant highway driving cycles and real world driving cycles with different terrain types have been used to show the impact of looking-ahead control strategy on managing energy storage system and fuel economy improvement. The results revealed that the proposed looking-ahead control strategy for parallel hybrid truck has substantial contribution in preparing the system for forthcoming power demand. Fuel economy change for the model with looking-ahead control strategy has been improved from 0.5 to 3% for different terrain types comparing to the same parallel hybrid truck model without looking-ahead strategy. Furthermore, reducing equipment sizes while maintaining adequate power and improved fuel economy was one of the potential findings from the proposed model.

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF INTERNAEL COMBUSTION ENGINES PERFORMANCE

Lutfi Yousif; Eklass Edan Kade; Bassam M. Yaaqub

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 657-667

Operating an internal combustion engines with different values of time, Speed, Compression ratio and temperature needs a lot of work & effort. To have best evaluation of operating processes and engine performance DOE – 9 Expert is used. In designing process time, Number of cycles per minute and compression ratio were input as variable factors and the calculated results of fuel consumption rate, Torque is the response and brake power, the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, the brake mean effective pressure, the volumetric and mechanical efficiency and the indicated power are the theoretically calculated factors .The first designed experimental work was for combustion engine which worked with gasoline only. Then a 10% of methanol added to gasoline is considered as mixture operating fuel. The DOE – 9 obtained predicted results were compared with the results and showed a good agreement. DOE – 9 perturbation plot show that as speed and mechanical efficiency and brake power increased (10 %).

EFFECT OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING PARAMETERS FOR STEEL SHEETS ON THE WELDING STRENGTH

Khalid Ahmed Al-Dolaimy

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 668-673

The resistance spot welding processes are widely used in the automobile, appliance and industries that use steel sheets, because of its low cost, high productivity, simple mechanism and applicability for automation. In this welding operation, two or more metal parts were joined together in a localized area by resistive heating and pressing force.
In this research, the effect of some welding parameters (voltage-current, and welding cycle time) on the resistance spot welding strength was investigated. Specimens made of mild steel sheet were spot welded and examined by using tensile test. The objective is to find out the optimum values of these parameters that give the best weldment strength which minimizes the frailer of the welded joint due to unsuitable welding parameters, and also to reduce the time and energy in using this process.
The results show that the welding parameters significantly affect the joint strength of the resistance spot welding. It shows that at low welding voltage-current, the welding joint strength increased by increasing welding cycle time, however at higher voltage-current, it increased by increasing welding cycle time to a specific values then started to decrease. It is obvious that voltage-current is more influential on welding joint strength than the welding cycle time. At (5 KVA) and (0.6 s) welding cycle time gave the best improvement in weldment strength for three sheet thicknesses (1, 1.5, and 2) mm of mild steel sheets.

CONTROL OF FLOW SEPARATION OVER NACA 0015 AIRFOIL USING SYNTHETIC JET ACTUATORS

Khuder N. Abed; Itimad D J Azzawi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 674-685

In this paper the concept of active flow control using an array of synthetic jet actuators has been investigated. Synthetic jets are the one type of actuators that will be used in this research to introduce important modification to the pressure distribution levels that appear over the lifting surface of airfoil model when the flow separation exists. Two synthetic jet actuators arrays were used; the first one placed at 3% c and the second array located at 6% c on the upper surface of a NACA0015 airfoil. The experiments are conducted at Re=455000 in 8 different angles of attack 0º to 15º using the wind tunnel at University of Diyala. The first part of this paper concentrates on making comparison of the collected experimental data of the pressure distribution over NACA0015 airfoil at Re = 4.4x105 at angle of attack varied from 0.0 to 20 degrees without synthetic jet actuators (baseline case study) and previous experimental results as a baseline validation of the onset of flow separation location. Figure 3 and 4 clearly showed that the pressure distribution and the calculated lift were converged in the stall region at high angle of attack.
In the second part of this study we had utilized a NACA0015 airfoil of 300 mm chord length with a rounded leading edge of 20 mm diameter. 18 discrete synthetic jet actuators with 1.2 mm diameter is distributed along the lifting surface of the wing. This distribution is used to investigate the effect of jets and vertical structures on the characteristics of pressure coefficients (Cp) and flow separation over the airfoil. Pressure and lift coefficients have been measured and calculated by using surface pressure measurements technique that uses 29 pressure tapings over the lifting surface of the wing. A piezo-ceramic diaphragms technology of 15mm diameter have been used in the experiments and excited at a variety of frequencies (resonant frequency and vortex shedding separated flow frequency) in order to get the effective interaction between the synthetic jets and separated boundary layer which is the most significant parameter of producing the vertical structure that affects the flow separation. The results showed that at 3% c SJA location, the best enhancement in the lift was seen at Vp-p of 8 which increased by about 0.1. However, the overall results showed that maximum enhancement in lift of about 0.2 at 6% c.

IMPROVEMENT HARDNESS AND MICROHARDNESS OF LOW ALLOY STELL BY USING MOLTEN METAL

Ali adwon H

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 686-691

We examined and study the characteristics properties of bainitic low alloy steel (30crmov9) obtained by used molten copper Instead what is customary in this process using molten salts .X-ray diffractometry (XRD)and optical microscopy (OM)were used to characterized their crystal structures ,microstructure and micro hardness.

STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ELEVATED PRESSURES ON THE LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF PROPANE-AIR MIXTURES

Adel M Salih; Miqdam T Chaichan; Aedah MJ Mahdy

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 692-698

Laminar burning velocities were obtained for three specific equivalence ratios of propane –air mixtures (Ø= 0.8, 1.0 & 1.3). The effect of elevated pressures at variable initial temperatures was also analyzed. It was found that the laminar burning velocity is reduced with the increase of pressure at constant temperature. At mixture high initial temperatures (350 K) the effect of pressure on laminar burning velocity was limited. The laminar flame speed results were compared with other researches and it was found a good agreement.

STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURES ON THE LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF PROPANE-AIR MIXTURES

Adel M Salih; Miqdam T Chaichan; Abdul Al-Salam H Naser

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 699-705

Laminar burning velocities were obtained at wide equivalence ratios of propane –air mixtures. The effect of elevated temperatures was also analyzed. It was found that the laminar burning velocity is increased with the increase of temperature at constant pressure. For equivalence ratio= 1.1 the laminar burning velocity was always the maximum. The laminar flame speed results were compared with other researches and it was found a good agreement.

EFFECT OF FEED RATEAND RACK ANGLE ON CUTTING FORCE AND GENERATED TEMPERATURE IN AN ORTHOGONAL TRUNING PROCESS

Zaid S. Hammoudi; Iman M. Naemah

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 706-712

In this research, a FEM simulation of orthogonal turning process is made. The effects of feed rate and rack angle of cutting tool on cutting force and generated temperature are analyzed. The analyses are curried out using MSC Marc 2013. Cutting tool is considered rigid in the modelling. While work hardening of workpiece material is considered in analysis to provide more accurate results. The results are compared to previous experimental analysis for same material and cutting conditions and show good agreement. Current analysis show that cutting forces increase with the increase of cutting feed, and decrease with the increase of rack angle of cutting tool. Results also show that the temperature rise increase significantly with increase of cutting feed, while change of rack angle does not have clear effect on temperature rise.

PREDICTION THE THICKNESS LAYER OF GALVANIZED IRAQI ELECTRICAL POLES USING MATHEMATICAL MODEL

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 713-721

Galvanized steel has a long history as an effective and economical material for manufacturing electrical poles. Galvanized steel consists of a thin coating of zinc fused to a steel substrate. This combination provides the pole high mechanical properties as the mechanical properties of steel enhanced with the corrosion resistance of zinc.
Corrosion rates have been calculated by Tafel extrapolation technique for different coating thicknesses (80, 90,100,110,120 and 130) µm. The soil resistivity is simulated by different concentrations (2, 2.5, 3, & 3.5) wt. % NaCl. Optical microscope examinations for their specimens were used successfully to evaluate corrosion rates for the galvanized steel poles.
Regression model has been used in this work to find the correlation between the corrosion parameters representing by thickness of galvanized layer of low carbon steel and resistivity of soil. Matlab (R 2013A) programme was used to get the unknown cofficients of the regression model . Theoretical mathematical equations were performed to predict the thickness layer of galvanized Iraqi electrical poles to get the best thickness of galvanized layer which has high corrosion resistance in different soil resistivity. This is considered the aim of this work. The results of the mathematical model show that the corrosion rate of galvanized steel decreases with the increase in coating thickness from 80 - 120 µm. The best corrosion resistance occurs at thickness 120 µm galvanized layer, while at 130 µm thickness micro cracks appear in the coating layer. The coating thickness has a direct influence on the performance or life of the electrical poles. As the thickness of galvanized layer increases, the life of protection increases until 120 µm.

THERMAL MANAGEMENT OF A DIRECT ATTACH CHIP OF A LAPTOP COMPUTER

Saad Theeyab Faris; Sami Ali Nawi; Mohammed Khudhair Abbas

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 722-730

This work presents an analytical and computational investigation of the effect of fins length and fin height at different volumetric flow rate of fan on the performance of heat sink. The facility have been adapted by using ANSYS15 and EES software to study the heat transfer characteristics for cross flows air cooled in single processors (chip) in modern laptop and study the effect of the fins in enhancement in heat transfer phenomena and study all variables which have effect on heat transfer phenomena. We make ten different readings of volumetric flow rate of fan from [0.05to 0.25] m3/s and three different reading of height and length at 21 Was heat load from the chip and we find that volumetric flow rate increases heat transfer coefficient and that will decrease junctions temperature from 55.74oC to 43.95oC as volumetric flow rate increase five times.
The theoretical and computational results showed good agreements between them as the junction temperature was decreasing when volumetric flow rate of fan increase and fins length increase as a results for additional surface area which dissipated more heat transfer and the fin effectiveness increasing in a results of increasing of volumetric flow rate of fan and fin height.

FATIGUE BEHAVIORA STUDY OF FERRITIC-MARTENSITIC CRYOGENICALLY TREATED USING 17Mn4 STEEL

D. A. Alazawi; B. M. Hussein; L.E.N. Ekpeni

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 731-739

Based on the importance of impressive mechanical properties good ductility, reduced cost, superior formability and excellent surface finish in terms of Ferritic-martensitic steel, it has been given consideration over other high strength low alloy steels and as such, this research work has been carried out modifying the properties of 17Mn4 Ferritic-martensitic steel.
In this work, the 17Mn4 ferritic-martensitic steel specimens were made and cryogenically treated as the first step towards its modification. Fatigue, micro hardness and microstructure inspections were carried out for all treated and non-cryogenic treated 17Mn4 steel specimens. The results showed a significant increase in strength of the 17Mn4 steel compared to the commercial plain carbon steels. From the conducted experiments, the results showed that the fatigue limits for the dual and cryogenic specimens been obtained as (380MPa) and (400MPa) respectively. A considerable enhancement in the fatigue value for the cryogenic steel showed a 6.25%rise as well as the hardness value for the dual and cryogenic treated specimens increasing significantly to (186) and (198) respectively. Further investigation showed a remarkable enhancement in the hardness value to be 25% for the cryo-treated specimen. While the microstructure inspection showed that, the steel containing martensitic with less ferrite grains formed around it, the investigation proved an increment in them artensitic ratio and was seen after the cryogenic treatment was conducted.

FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE AIRCRAFT WING WITH CIRCULAR CUTOUT USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

Mohammed Ismael Hamed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 740-752

In the present study, the effect of circular cutout in the skin of composite aircraft wing on the natural frequencies was studied by finite element method using ANSYS software version 11. The case which was studied is the presence of circular cutout in the skin of the wing through its thickness. The parameters which were studied are the cutout ratio, the location of cutout along the wing span, the location of the cutout along the wing width and the number of the damaged panels. The results showed that the presence of cutout caused a small decreasing in the natural frequencies. The increasing in the cutout ratio and the number of damaged panels caused a small decrease in the natural frequencies. The variation in the location of the cutout along the wing span and the wing width caused very small effect on the natural frequencies.

VEHICLE FUEL (GASOLINE) ON THE POLLUTION OF DIYALA PROVINCE ENVIRONMENT

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 768-775

This study focused on studying the air pollution in the province of Diyala due to increase of higher fuel, gasoline consumption, which amounted to more than 1000% in 2013.This result in toxic gases lead to increase air pollution and high temperatures. The study focused also for studying the properties of the fuel used in Diyala province and compared with international specification fuel standards. It found that domestic fuel was 9% less than the international standards regarding the amount of energy. So, the flash point fuels is the highest 6.5% of the international border and the proportion of the lower octane number by 7%, This turned to led to increase emission of gases (CO, HC, NOx) and increase air pollution. Found that the consumption of gasoline in the (99 gasoline station) located in the province of Diyala up to 900,000 liters per day. This means a significant to increase in the amount of gases by vehicles. Proposed group of solutions to reduce this increase, including mechanical solutions represented by improving vehicle design in line with the Iraqi airspace and the other focused on improving the type of fuel which used, and development the mechanisms and proposals for development of fuel consumption vehicles.

EFFECT OF HOT CORROSION ON BOILERS PIPES IN NORTH BAGHDAD ELECTRIC POWER PLANT STATION

Anees A. Khadom; Ahmed A. Fadhil; em A. Karim; Abdul Mun; Hongfang Liu

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 776-784

The high temperature external corrosion of boiler pipes was evaluated using weight loss technique. Samples of low carbon steel were supplied from north of Baghdad thermal station and used in current study. Locally supplied fuel ash was used as corrosion environment. Corrosion rates were determined as a function of time in the absence and presence of fuel ash. The results showed that the corrosion of boiler steel pipes was higher in the presence of fuel ash. Scanning electron microscope was also used to study the morphology of surface.

SEPARATION OF ALKALOIDS FROM PLANTS BY BULK LIQUID MEMBRANE TECHNIQUE USING ROTATING DISCS CONTACTOR

Khalid M. Abed; Adel A. Al-Hemiri

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 785-793

This paper describes the transport of Alkaloids through Rotating Discs Contactor (RDC) using n-decane as a liquid membrane. The transport of Pelletierine Alkaloid from a source phase through bulk liquid membrane to the receiving phase has been investigated. The general behaviour of Pertraction process indicates that %Extraction of pelletierine Alkaloid increased with increase in the number of stages and the agitation speed but high agitation speed was not favoured due to the increased risk of droplet formation during the operation. The pH of source and receiving phases were also investigated. The effect of organic solvent membrane on the extraction of Pelletierine was evaluated using n-decane, n-hexane and methyl cyclohexane. The results showed that n-decane has a good extracting ability. The highest %Extraction of pelletierine Alkaloid was observed of (69.16%).

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS BY PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION USING CARBON MOLECULAR SIEVE SORBENT

Heba S. Auob

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 794-803

- Emissions of carbon dioxide CO2 from power plant stations have direct effect on global climate change through increasing the average temperature which then threat the human life. Thus it is essential to reduce the CO2 emissions to the allowed level. Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process is one of the efficient and economic processes for capturing the CO2 from flue gases. In the present study two columns 6-step PSA process packed with carbon molecular sieve (CMS) was used to study the effect of adsorption pressure, purge flow rate, and cycle time on the process performance (In term of CO2 purity). The results showed that the CO2 purity decreased in the product line and increased in the purge line with increases of the adsorption pressure. Increasing purge flow rate from 0.5 lit/min to 2 lit/min at the range of all cycle time and different adsorption pressures led to decrease in CO2 emissions. The CO2 purity decreased with increases of cycle time up to 80 second and then increased slightly at 100 second in spite of increasing of pressure to 4 bar. The CO2 purity was about 0.7% in the product line, and 38% in the purge out line.

RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF VACUUM GAS OIL – POLYPROPYLENE BLENDS SYSTEM

S. R. Sultan; Adnan A. Abdul Razak; A. M. Hameed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 804-812

The present work is concerned with study of the flow behavior of poly propylene (PP) and Vacuum Gas Oil (VGO) blends. Viscosimetry measurements of the blends with different polymer weight fractions between 0 and 10 wt%., temperatures between 391 K and 491 K at shear rates up to 1000 S-1 were performed. These blends were shown to have peculiar flow behavior exhibiting Newtonian fluid flow property at higher temperatures and lower polymer concentrations, while at lower temperatures and at higher polymer concentrations, showing non-Newtonian shear thinning or pseudo-plastic behavior. These properties have been shown to be more pronounced at lower shear rates than at higher shear rates. The application of Ostwald-De Waele power law model for the prediction of the viscosity under different operating conditions of shear rates, temperature and base components weight fractions has been given a good fit for the experimental viscosimetry data.

STUDY THE ECONOMICAL AND OPTIMUM THERMAL INSULATION THICKNESS OF BUILDING WALLS FOR ENERGY SAVING IN IRAQ

Mustafa S. Mahdi; Anees A. Khadom

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 813-818

In hot climatic countries such as Iraq, a great amount of energy is consumed in air-conditioning. Environmental effect of energy consuming and the increasing cost of energy, give special interest in order to overcome the day by day increasing energy demand. Therefore the optimum insulation thickness for building was studied in this work to reduce the energy losses in three different climatic city of Iraq; Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah. Cork was used as an insulation material in present work. The optimization based on ten years life cycle cost analysis. As a result; significant energy saving is gained; saving of 10573 IDper square meter (about 10$/m2) of the wall in Basrah can be obtained annually when the optimum insulation thickness is applied.

KINETIC STUDY OF HYDROCARBON LIQUID PRODUCTION VIA THERMAL AND CATALYTIC PYROLYSIS FOR LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

Ammar S. Abbas; Fahmi Abuelgasim Mohamed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 819-834

Pyrolysis process becomes an interesting technique to shrink the increasing amounts of the plastic waste. Iraqi kaolin clay has used as a catalyst for the pyrolysis of polyethylene plastic in order to produce the hydrocarbon liquid fuel. The pyrolysis process carried out for low-density polyethylene plastics in semi-batch open system reactor in a temperature range of 370 to 450°C.
Thermo-gravimetric analysis for the plastic presented the range of degradation was between 349 and 489 °C. The pyrolysis results show a remarkable increasing of the hydrocarbon liquid yield produced from the catalytic pyrolysis process by Iraqi kaolin compare with the thermal pyrolysis results. The kinetic study demonstrates that the pyrolysis temperature affected the catalytic production rate of hydrocarbon liquid more than the thermal process.
The characterization of the liquid hydrocarbon products by the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy shows that alkanes were the main compounds in the produced hydrocarbon liquid while the x-ray diffraction indicated no sulphur in the produced hydrocarbon liquids. The ASTM distillation reported obvious increasing in the total light fractions (below 250 °C) for the catalytically pyrolysis reaction products.

BIOSORPTION OF COPPER AND LEAD IONS USING WHEAT HUSK

Salah N. Farhan

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 835-845

The present work focused on the effectiveness of wheat husk for removal of Cu(II) ions and pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. A batch biosorption experiments was carried out using wheat husk as a biosorbent for metal removal to determined optimum biosorption conditions including pH, biomass dosage, contact time, and temperature.
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) adsorption results show maximum adsorption capacities of 93.41% for lead and 88% for cupper at pH 4, 5.5 respectively.
Various initial metal concentrations (from 20 to 100 ppm) and various amount of biosorbent were investigated.
The effect of pH was significant and varied with each metal. These results were found to be comparable to results reported from previous works. The results show that the removal efficiency of each adsorbent is highly dependent on pH, and metal ion removal occurred in the preferential order lead > cupper.
The FT-IR studies show that the C-O in carboxyl group of alginate directly attaches to the copper ion that leads to most of the adsorption. Langmuir, and Freundlich models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by wheat husk biomass. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm. The monolayer biosorption capacity of wheat husk for Pb(II) and Cr(III) ions was found to be 75.8 mg/g and 52.1 mg/g, respectively. From the D–R isotherm model, the mean free energy was calculated as 12.7 kJ/mol for Pb(II) biosorption and 10.5 kJ/mol for Cu(II) biosorption, indicating that the biosorption of both metal ions was taken place by chemical ion-exchange

HYDROGEN PURIFICATION USING A MICROPOROUS HYDROTALCITE-SILICA COMPOSITE MEMBRANE

Ahmed Daham Wiheeb; em A. Karim; Abdul Mun; Taif Emad Mohammed; Mohd Roslee Othman

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 846-854

A novel thin microporous composite membrane of a dual-element hydrotalcite-silica was prepared on porous alumina support by sol-gel method. Strong CO2 adsorption on hydrotalcite material inhibited the diffusion of H2 through the membrane and decreased H2 permeances significantly so that CO2 preferentially permeated. The effects of pressure difference across the membrane, operating temperature and CO2 feed concentration on the CO2 separation performance of the membrane were investigated using synthetically mixed gas. The CO2 permeance and CO2/H2 separation selectivity decreased with increasing the temperature due to the loss of the membrane ability for CO2 adsorption with temperature. Further increase of the pressure difference across the membrane decreased both CO2 permeance and CO2/H2 separation selectivity. The CO2 feed concentration with 40% showed the best performance with a CO2/H2 separation selectivity of 10.59.

PREDICTION OF SCALE REMOVAL WEIGHT DEPOSITED ON SURFACE OF HEAT EXCHANGER USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

Suheila Abd Al-Reda Akkar

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 855-868

Scale is a term generally used in industry refers to any deposit on equipment surface. Usually the deposition of scale is undesirable because it is uncontrolled and a build-up of scale on metal surfaces may act as insulation causing decreased efficiency. So removal of scale has gained special attention in the last few years due to its significance, when predicting removal scale weight. However, the complexity and variability makes it hard to model its effects. This study evaluates the usefulness of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict the scale removal weight as a function of several of their properties which have been related in previous studies i.e. time, concentration of organic acid salts, Temperature, density, viscosity. Results showed that neural networks are a powerful tool and that the validity of the results is closely linked to the amount of data available and the experience and knowledge that accompany the analysis. The structure of ANN models is [5-18-1] the best because reach MSE 0.001 with AARE%, S.D%, and R (0.12, 0.46, 0.9) respectively. The training of network use MATLAB program.

MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION OF SYNDIOTACTIC POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE USING GENETIC ALGORITHM TECHNIQUE

S. R. Sultan; Z. M. Shakoor; A. M. Hameed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 869-884

The optimal control policies for the syndiotactic polymerization of styrene over silica supported metallocene catalyst, have been determined using a multiobjective optimization technique. Kinetics model (KM) and genetic algorithms (GA) were tested as tools for modeling and optimization of syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) synthesis process. The dependence between the main parameters of the process and working conditions were modeled by using KM. To verify the KM, syndiotactic polymerization of styrene over silica supported metallocene catalyst was conducted. The validation results show that the KM predicts best polymerization reactor performance with an average absolute error less than 15%. The KM is then included into an optimizing control scheme, which uses a genetic algorithm solving technique and a multiobjective function in a scalar form. Genetic algorithms based methodology provides accurate results, computing optimal values of decision variables, which lead to the maximum rate of polymerization and the desired value for molecular weight. The validation results in these optimum values are valid and the average absolute error less than 5 % of all responses.

STUDY THE EFFECT OF ADDITION OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC MATERIAL ON SOME OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF UNSATURATED POLYESTER

Bashar Jawad K

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 885-892

In this work unsaturated polyester resin was modified with a Peach waste product of peach (natural) and novolac (synthetic) polymer. With weight percentage (0, 1.5, 3.5, and 5%). Some mechanical properties such as impact, tensile, and hardness conductivity as well as dielectric constant were studied. The results obtained that the best value of impact strength obtained at 5% from peach waste. Hardness Test gave proportional relationship with the peach waste percentage while it increased by 1% for novolac. Tensile strength gave the best value at 3.5% and tensile modulus at 1.5% of peach waste. Dielectric constant increases with the increasing percentage of added materials. The thermal Conductivity decreasing with an increase percentage of novolac particles while it decreased at 1.5% for peach.

REMOVAL OF LEAD, COPPER AND NICKEL IONS FROM WASTEWATER BY FORWARD OSMOSIS PROCESS

Ahmed A. Mohammed; Ahmed Faiq Al; Alawy; Tamara Kawther Hussein

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 893-908

In this study the application of a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) metal ions from wastewater is briefly described. Polyamide (thin film composite (TFC))used as flat sheet forward membrane for heavy metal rejection under orientation membrane of active layer facing feed solution and using NaCl of different concentration as the draw solution. The operating parameters studied were draw solutions concentration (5 - 100 g/l), feed solutions concentration (5 - 200 mg/l), pH of feed solution (4 - 8), constant pressure and temperature were maintained at 0.2 bar and 25 °C respectively. It was found that the water flux increases with increasing draw solution concentration, and decreases with increasing feed solution concentration and pH of feed solution. For different type of heavy metal used as feed solution, the order of water flux was Pb+2> Cu+2> Ni+2. For binary and ternary feed solution, the water flux decreased with time and increasing with the concentration of feed solution due to decreasing of driving force. Forward osmosis can be used to recover water from wastewater contaminated by heavy metals with a rejection efficiency more than 99%, 97% and 87% for Pb+2, Ni+2, and Cu+2metal ions respectively.