ISSN: 1999-8716

Volume 9, Issue 2

Volume 9, Issue 2, Spring 2016, Page 1-108


DESIGN OF A PC-BASED DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROLLER

Hawraa Qasim Hameed; Firas Mohammed Ali

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-11

This paper is concerned with the interfacing process between a personal computer and a permanent magnet DC motor. A practical interface circuit has been designed and implemented in order to control the speed of a permanent-magnet DC motor using a C++ control program.
The proposed circuit technique involves receiving the digital signals from the parallel port of the PC and providing them to a transistor driver circuit through an IC buffer. The transistors in the driver circuit are used to increase the current level of the incoming signals into an adequate value in order to drive control relays that are connected to the motor circuit. The control relays are utilized, in turn, to split or insert certain number of resistors connected in series with the motor circuit and thus changing its speed according to a prescribed digital sequence generated by the computer program. The circuit was implemented and tested successfully at the laboratory.

EVALUATING THE REALITY OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN ACCORDANCE WITH ISO 9001: 2008 FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AND CONSULTATION SERVICES BUREAU IN F.T.E

Firas Khairy Jaber

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-23

This research aims to evaluate the reality of quality management in the administrative performance of the Scientific and Consultation services Bureau in Foundation of Technical Education (F.T.E) according to ISO 9001: 2008 and to secure high performance in terms of quality. By Using the "case study" methodology for the purposes of this research, and through the field of working in the Scientific and Consultation services Bureau (case study), wher identified on the functioning of all the processes in the bureau, particular the details of the business related to quality has been found on the special tests of laboratory and designs documentations and documentations for training courses documents. Also conducted interviews with officials in the relevant authorities, experts and specialists in this field. checklists was used for the purpose to determining the reality of the activities performance for the office to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the existing developments and the state of the gap compared to the elements of quality assurance system ISO 9001 in 2008 and analyze the causes. Fainally, the researcher obtained a set of conclusions and recommendations.

IMPROVEMENT THE DFIG ACTIVE POWER WITH VARIABLE SPEED WIND USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

Siraj Manhal Hameed; Hussein Thani Rishag

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 12-26

The Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) has become very popular and more attractive to study the possibility of replacing the conventional power source by renewable energy. This paper is focusing on the modeling and analysis of (DFIG) in Matlab/Smulink with constant and variable speed wind. Three test systems are considered and implemented. The first system is studied with constant wind speed using sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) to control the switching of two level three phase back to back converters. The second system is investigated also with constant wind speed but using space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM). The two systems have been simulated and the results shows the effect of each type of pulse width modulation.
Two fault conditions are subjected to the second system, single line to ground fault at phase A (in 33KV line), programmable fault (three phase voltage drop to 0.5pu) at the Grid bus (132KV bus). Then the system recovery at the steady-state under faults is shown.
For the third system the input was the variable speed wind, the simulation results illustrate that when the input is variable wind speed the generated power will be reduced and the system behavior unstable, therefore, the control circuit is needed for the optimization to reduce the losses of the generated power; this optimization can be made by tuning the controllers gains with new suitable values, so the optimization is made by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).
The new optimal values improved the system behavior, and illustrated the possibility of operation with variable wind speed.

SPECIAL GYPSUM BOARD FOR USED AS INTERIOR WALL FINISH MATERIALS AT BAGHDAD CITY

Atif Ali Hasan

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 24-37

The gypsum which use as a direct way for finishing wall surfaces have many defect, therefore a special gypsum board has been suggested. The thermal and constructional behavior of that board was investigated at Baghdad climate zone (33.2N°) during one year (2013) at 21th day of each month for 15 hour per day.
The test results showed that, the suggested gypsum board which consist of rough dust saw or feathery palm trees gives energy saving about 36% yearly

THE ANALYSIS BEHAVIOUR OF ARCHED STRIP FOUNDATIONS

Mohammed Ahmed Elaiwi Al- Hamdani

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 27-37

The construction of bearing walls structures does not necessarily require for using plane strip reinforce concrete footings. These structures can construct by using present simple arched plain and reinforced concrete strip footings on silty clay and silty sand soil using finite element. This paper aims at analyzing plain and reinforced concrete arched strip footings, as foundation system of bearing walls structures, as an alternative solution to the construction of buildings. The effect of soil type, arched strip footing's height and the bearing walls vertical load on the dimensions and capacity of arched strip footings study in this paper. A numerical model for the non-linear analysis of arched strip footing-soil interaction problem based on the finite and infinite element implement. A computer program develops to model the arched strip footing-soil installation. The material and geometrical non-linearity of the concrete strip footing takes into account the non-linear stress-strain relation of concrete and presence for cracking also considers. In addition, Duncan-Mohr-Coulomb Modified model uses to simulate soil non-linearity. The obtained numerical results were compared with the traditional method in designing of strip footings commonly used by structural engineers.
Design charts propose and presented for structural designers in order to calculate arched P.C & R.C strip footing dimensions according to type of soil and vertical load such strip footings which consider the cost less than traditional bearing walls construction system. The thickness of strip footing expresses in a non-dimensional ratio (t/B), where (B) is the breadth of the strip footing, with three ratios of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 respectively. The height of the arched strip footing was expressed in a non-dimensional form (h/B) with three ratios of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 respectively. Four different values of vertical load (P = 20t/m', 30t/m', 40t/m' & 50t/m') investigate in the analysis. Two types of soil; silty clay, and silty sand consider in this study to represent the cases of weak and stiff soil. This result leads to exceptionally low cost up to 30% and safe structures than in case of plane strip footing. The present investigation shows some results that the minimum etc.

STUDY THE SUITABILITY OF GROUNDWATER OF SOME WELLS IN KIRKUK GOVERNORATE FOR HUMAN, ANIMAL AND IRRIGATION USES

Sahira Ahmad Mahmood; Alaa Imad Hameed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 38-48

The study presents results of some physical and chemical characteristics of the ground water of wells: at Baghdad road, lies baba kurkur petrol station (wells no.1),and Granada well, lies near Al-sa,a public bath(wells no.2), the well of Al-Aoroba neighborhood opposite Kirkuk slaughter house(wells no.3) , the well no.4 lies at the beginning of fourth bridge ,all these wells are in Kirkuk governorate .this study aims basically evaluate the suitability of the four wells for human ,irrigation and animals use, by comparing these characteristics with the standards of world health organization (WHO),and the Iraqi standard .the results showed that the studied physical and chemical characteristics of water wells are within the normal characteristics, which indicates that the water of four wells is drinkable.

ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATION OF SEEPAGE THROUGH HOMOGENOUS EARTH DAM WITHOUT FILTER

Asmaa Abdul Jabbar Jamel

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 38-49

This investigation concerns to study the quantity of seepage through homogenous earth dam without filter resting on impervious base using computer program SEEP/W (which is a sub-program of Geo-Studio).
Using SEEP/W experiments carries out with three different downstream slopes of the dam, three different upstream slopes, three variable downstream head, three different upstream head, three different height of earth dam and three different top width of earth dam. For each run the quantity of seepage have determined. Dimensional analysis was used with helping of the theoretical results to develop an empirical equation in order to determine the quantity of seepage through homogenous earth dam without filter resting on impervious base. Also, Verify the SEEP/W results with an artificial neural network (ANN), and compare with analytical methods. Results show that when compare the suggest equation with artificial neural network (ANN) less than 3% error with SEEP/W results less than 2% error, Dupuit’s solution has more than 20% error and Casagrande’s solution has more than 15% error.

GEOELECTRICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL EVALUATION OF SUBSOIL AT A PROPOSED ENGINEERING SITE, NE OF BAGHDAD CITY

Mundher Dhahir. Nsaif

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 50-61

Subsoil evaluation within a proposes site for civil engineering structure by using geoelectrical and geotechnical methods of investigation carry out. The study aims to provide information on the stratigraphy, thickness, nature, and competence of the subsoil. Eighteen (18) Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) stations using Schlumberger configuration occupy and complement with geotechnical analysis of eighteen (18) soil samples collect at all the VES points at depth not exceeding 1m within the study area. The VES interpretations delineate four main geoelectric sequences which comprise of the top soil, mixture of clay and sand, gravely sand and sandy gravel. The top soils are generally thin (< 2 m) and majorly composes of clayey silt/ silty clay /sandy clay/ clayey sand/ fill materials. The layer resistivity ranges from 0.75-19.6 Ωm for topsoil, 1.71 - 6.7 Ωm for clay and sand mixture, 0.01 – 2.69 Ωm for saturated gravelly sand layer and 4.23- 4.61 Ωm for saturated sandy gravel layer. Low resistivity values at the study area are due to moisture and clay content within deposits at the study area. The geotechnical results show that the soil is relatively high clay content, intermediate to high moisture content and high plasticity. It concludes from the combined results above, that the topsoil is generally geotechnically less competence soil and may not serve as a good foundation material, therefore shallow foundation may not be feasible in studied area and, for engineering structure to be erected on such soil there is need for soil improvement or pilling to the sand layer.

ECG MONITORING SYSTEM BASED ON MICROCONTROLLER

Hadeel Nasrat Abdullah; Wajid Dawood Alwan

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 62-72

Health monitoring systems becomes a hot topic and important research field. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is a diagnoses tool that measures and records the electrical activity of the heart, taking care of patient’s health. Therefore, monitoring this signal becomes a necessary need to take care of human health.
In this paper, two procedures are proposed; first, monitoring the ECG signal, second for sending the signal of monitoring patients and ECG data through Serial communication port to the other pc or nurse. AT89C51 microcontroller uses to perform these procedures including all the necessary connections of the microcontroller with other components and programming the microcontroller using assembly language to send the signal serially. At both transmitting and receiving sides, the signal was gives the same setting of baud rate, stop bits, number of data bits, parity to ensure secure arrival of data without any lossless.

REAL-TIME SIMULATION FOR PROTECTION AND SUBSTATION CONTROL WITH MATLAB / SIMULINK

Jamal A. Hameed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 73-84

This paper presents the design of a simple real-time simulator to protection electrical power system tests, whose the operation principle is based on closed feedback in the loop. The hardware system has a series results from scientific projects carried out at the Protection and Control Laboratory of electrical power system.
Models interface supports MATLAB / Simulink control system, and LabVIEW interface, and others. This gives not only Simulink, but also provides full support for any test software in real time, which uses the same interface. To run in the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation and the model has a measurement of the variables of the devices, whose receive the calculated variables in the form of mathematics. Testing has an integral part of modern controller development. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation plays a prominent role as test method. In HIL, the implemented controller is tested against a computer model of the process. Besides the communication between simulation and controller, HIL requires their synchronization.
Besides the communication between simulation and controller, the program is based on the MATLAB / Simulink package including libraries, while the hardware installed measuring cards segment consists in PC computers, amplifier CMS 156 dedicated and matching circuit.
The last section of this article and a brief description of possible improvements expected for simulation in the future. The study involves xPC Target as a real time operating system in charge of executing a control task is focusing on the built in control and simulation capabilities. We will try to see how accurate and how fit xPC Target is for multiple Targets control, here the xPC Target is used as an operating environment for real time simulation in electrical power sub stations system.

NEURAL NETWORK MODELING OF THE SULFUR DIOXIDE REMOVAL BY ACTIVATED CARBON SORBENT

Safa A. Al-Naimi; Neran K. Ibrahim; Afraa H. Kamel

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 85-95

An artificial neural network (ANN) model of three-layers was advanced to predict the efficiency of the sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal from the flue gas stream (SO2+air) in a fixed bed reactor using granulated activated carbon sorbent. The experimental data were collected from varying six process variables, namely, initial SO2 concentration, reaction temperature, flue gas flow rate, sorbent particle size, bed height and reaction time. The data were used to create input-base information to train and test the NN strategy. Back propagation algorithm with two hidden layers was used for training and tests the NN. The neural network predictions of SO2 removal efficiency agree with experimental data with the minimum mean squared error (MSE) for training and testing with values of 0.112*10-4 and 0.817*10-3, respectively.

“GATE TO GATE” LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF BABEL LEAD ACID BATTERY

May George Kassir; Lamyaa Mohammed Dawood; Hind Ihsan Mohammed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 96-108

Life Cycle Analysis "LCA" of Babel Lead acid battery of 135 (Amp/hr) capacity is investigated according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO)14040 framework for LCA, to identify the four major contributors to the environmental impacts; Eutrophication, Global Warming, Human Toxicity, Acidification. “Gate to Gate” approach were employed, data from the production processes for 2012 were collected. Results of the inventory analysis phase are calculated employing Chain Management Life Cycle Assessment (CMLCA) software and the results from impact assessment phase analyzed using the CML method. Results show that the environmental impact spreads over the production processes and every process has a certain impact, however, the largest environmental impact relates to Formation and Assembly processes, the Formation process impact on Eutrophication is of (71%) and on Global Warming is of (26%) contribution. Were the Assembly process impact both for Human Toxicity and Acidification contribution about (59%) and (50%) respectively.