ISSN: 1999-8716

Volume 10, Issue 4

Volume 10, Issue 4, Autumn 2017, Page 1-184


The Reduction of thermal environment effect by using portable secondary window

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 1-18

The Environmental heat which transform to building inside through window glass is very large ( due to the large value of glass heat transfer coefficient ) .Therefore an auxiliary window made from simple aluminum frame and consisted from three layers of polycarbonate solid transparence insulation sheet is suggested .This window can be joined to the building window at inside or outside according to building design requirement .This study was carried out at Baghdad climate zone (32.2N0) through summer season (may to September ) 2015 .
The test results showed that , using secondary window will reduce the electrical energy consumption used for cooling by ( 8 – 28.5)% according to glass types .
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Theoretical analysis of surface roughness effect on hydrodynamic performance for bearings type 5220

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 19-32

In this research, we studied the effect of surface roughness for bearings of inner ring and cylindrical rotor type 5220, on the hydrodynamic lubrication in performance convergence area by analyzing the effect of surface roughness on the oil film thickness around the bearing, then influence on generated pressure by rotating shaft. Matlab. R2013b program with finite differences method of five nodes grid used to solve Reynolds equation numerically. the results appear that when the roughness of bearing surfaces is 18.2 µm (high finishing surfaces bearings), this will be decreasing 49% from the oil film thickness between surfaces, which cause increasing total pressure from (65.74 M. Pas.) (in rough surfaces) to (748.3 M. Pas.) which enhancing the ability of bearing to rising load of rotor shaft in the limited speed reach to (18.78 K.N.).

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EFFECT OF GLASS ADDITION AND HEAT TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND WEAR RATE OF ALUMINUM - 2% GRAPHITE

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 33-41

This research studied the effect of the Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties and the Wear Rate of the pure Aluminum with a particle size of (≤53μm). The Aluminum is reinforced by graphite with a particle size of (≤63μm) with an addition of glass particles with different weight ratios of (3, 6, 9, and 12) Wt. % and a particle size was (≤ 53μm).
Powder metallurgy technique has been used to manufactured the samples, where the samples are pressed uniaxial at room temperature with (500 Map), then sintering at (550 C0) for (2 hr.). After that, heat treatment is applied on the samples at (500 OC) for one hour and Quenched in water.
There was a great improvement of the mechanical properties such as the hardens and the compressive strength. This improvement was proportional with the Weight ratio of the glass particles before and after the Heat Treatment.
On the other hand, there was a decrease of the wear rate versus the increase of the Weight ratio of the glass particles and heat treatment.
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SIMULATION OF MOISTURE DISTRIBUTION IN SOIL UNDER DRIP IRRIGATION WITH DIFFERENT DEGREE WATER SALINITY BY USING HYDRUS-2D

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 42-58

Hydrus-2D version 2.04 was used to simulate the movement of moisture content under a surface drip source with eight irrigation treatments included water salinity of (0%, 50%, 66%, 100%) with actual discharges of drips ( 3.94 l/ hr and 7.88 l/ hr) at the root zone of potato crop. It is initially measured in the field as experimental work conducted in Saqlawiyah with longitude E and latitude N, during spring season of 2010. A simulation domain was designed according to spacing between drips with 19 observation points. To monitor moisture content with 24 hours after irrigation at the end of each growing stages of potato crop.
The results showed that, there is a good agreement between measured and simulated moisture content in the root zone at different stages of potato growth and for all irrigation treatments approved in the research. The results also showed there is decrease in moisture content with increasing water salinity and with actual discharge of 7.88 l/hr.
So, Hydrus-2D can be considered as an effective tool for predicting the moisture distribution in the root zone under surface drip irrigation.
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Preparing Composite Materials from Commercially Pure Aluminum Scrap and Reinforced Iron Oxides Fe3O4 & Fe2O3

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 59-71

This study is concerned with investment of the commercial purity aluminum scrap (1100) by converting it to aluminum matrix composite reinforced by iron oxides particles. The particle size, X-RD and microstructure of the oxides particles were found. The weight ratio of added oxides was (1%, 1.5% & 2%) .Wettabilty was improved by pure magnesium additive. Electric mixer is used to dispersing iron oxides particles in the aluminum scrap molten. After that, was cut the composite to samples and prepared these to tests such as; tensile strength, compression strength, hardness, wear resistance, impact strength (toughness), corrosion resistance and microstructure. From tests above found that; tensile strength, compression strength, wear resistance, hardness were increased in composite compared to the base metal , while impact strength (toughness)and corrosion resistance were lowered slightly in composite compared to the base metal .In wear resistance test used (pin-on-disk) technique where load ,sliding velocity and sliding distance were constant. The microstructures were taken for base metal and composite before and after corrosion to comparison. .

EFFECT OF GRAPHITE/WC ADDITIONS ON PHYSICAL, MECHANICAL, AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 72-86

Metal matrix composites with based of Aluminum are considered among the most important ones that are used in complex engineering application for their good properties; including high resistance to weight ratio, low density, and wear resistance.
This work aims to make an Aluminum matrix composite that is reinforced with Tungsten Carbide (WC) particles with constant volumetric ratio of 3% in addition to Graphite particles (Gr) variable volumetric ratios of (0,2,4,6, and 8%) by using powder metallurgical techniques and study the physical, mechanical and wear properties of aluminum. The materials were mixed for 15 minutes using a mechanical mixer, then the mixture was cold compressed to 500 MPa to get samples with 12 mm in diameter, and 6 mm high, then they were sintered at 550 oC for two hours. Some mechanical properties were studied, hardness, compressive strength, wear rate; in addition to the physical properties of volumetric and apparent density, total and apparent porosity, water absorption, and microscopic structure examination.
The results showed that hardness and compressive strength were decreased by 24% and 40%, respectively by increasing the volumetric ratio of the graphite. Furthermore, the minimum wear rate, or maximum strength, was obtained at graphite ratio of 2%, then it increases after that, while the based composite reinforced with tungsten carbide only showed maximum wear rate and minimum resistance. Moreover, the results also showed that there is a proportional relationship between the volumetric and apparent densities in which they decrease when the volumetric ratio of the graphite increases. On the contrary, the total and apparent porosity increase by increasing graphite content, causing increase in water absorption for the hybrid composite.
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SIMULATION OF SOIL SALINITY DISTRIBUTION UNDER DRIP IRRIGATION WITH DIFFERENT WATER SALINITY

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 87-100

Using saline water has been widely used in irrigation to address the scarcity of fresh water and it's inadequacy for different uses. Hydrus-2D was used to simulate the movement of salts under a surface drip source with four irrigation systems, included, water salinity percentages (50%, 100%) with actual drip discharge (3.94 l/hr and 7.88 l/hr) in the root zone of potato crop. it is initially assessed on the basis of a field study conducted, in Saqlawiyah, during spring season of 2010. A simulation domain was designed, according to spacing between drips, with group of observation points; to monitor salinity distribution, 1 day after irrigation at the end of each growing stages of potato crop. The results showed, a fairly good agreement between measured electrical conductivity for soil samples and those simulated with Hydrus-2D, at all stages of potato growth. A decrease in soil salinity was shown with irrigation systems using, actual drip discharge of 3.94 l/hr. Salinity gradually increased with potato growth development, and increasing salt water utilization rates in irrigation. Hydrus-2D can be considered as an effective tool for predicting of content of salinity distribution in the root zone, under surface drip irrigation. .

Design and manufacture of Cyclone to separate the dried milk and study the effect of temperature and particles loading on separated efficiency

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 101-114

Cyclone is a device used to separate the suspended particles in the air or any other gases depending on centrifuge process and swirls without using filters. In this research, a cyclone was designed to separate the dried milk that exit from spray dryer (exist in the Labs of engineering college/University of Tikrit) and then manufacturing the cyclone by depending on the design calculations. The results showed a very high agreement between the design results and the manufactured cyclone results. Design calculations were carried through based on Lapple’s method where the cyclone dimensions, efficiency, and pressure drop for various diameters of milk particles were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed and the results showed that correlation of (R2=97.8%) between the dependent variable (the separated efficiency) at (j) range of particles diameters (ηj) and Independent variables including: (the particles diameter) at (j) range of particles diameters (dj) at (µm), the temperature (T) at (cᵒ) and particles loading (Lp) at (kg/s). The separated efficiency effect proportional with particles loading and inversely proportional with temperature. Volumetric flow rate was 0.14m3/s, velocity was 12.5m/s, the temperature of air and particles loading that depended in manufactured cyclone was 200cᵒ and 0.45kg/s respectively. The collection efficiency for the design calculations was 99.58% and efficiency for the manufactured cyclone was 98.24%. 98.24%.

The impact of the organizational problems facing the transport network on the urban growth of Baqubah city

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 115-129

Transport is the most important factor affecting the development of the internal structure of the city. The problem of research is that the increase in the number of cars and especially the lack of reliance on public transport has led to a great momentum on the capacity of the transport network in the city. Offset by the lack of development, expansion and modification of the transport network of the city affects the quality of urban housing of the city as well as economic and social conditions and security conditions led to the imposition of security checkpoints and the closure of many of the streets, crowding the transport network and its impact on the urban development of the city. The objective of the research is to study the historical stages affecting the composition of the transport network and the effect of the geographic factors of Baquba city and its relationship with other cities in terms of the external transport network of passengers and goods. The approach we will adopt in the research is to develop the basic plans of the city which include appropriate solutions for the internal and external transport network of the city and apply it on the ground and not allow random transgressions by enacting laws that limit this overflow and finding appropriate solutions to the phenomenon of population displacement to the city and residential violations on the basic plans of the city and its impact on urban growth..

Investment of the magnetic field in reducing the corrosion rate and extraction of iron ores from CK45 steel

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 130-143

Find out the effect of the magnetic field site resulting from a permanent magnet (a magnet pad) on the rate of corrosion of the carbon steel type (DIN CK45) and to invest this effect in lowering the corrosion rate as a corrosion-retardant factor (corrosion inhibitor); Because of the highest weight loss due to corrosion when the permanent magnet pad is adjacent to the corrosion test chamber (0.0185 gr.); and the lowest weight loss due to corrosion is when the magnetic pad is touching the corroded steel and the value of (0.0062 gr.), and the amount of weight loss is (0.0098 gr.) when the corrosion of the steel is without the magnetic field effect, and the duration of the test is eight consecutive months. The magnetic field is also invested in electrochemical deposition by deposition of the ferric chloride compound (FeCl3) and then converted into Magnetite powder (Fe3O4) and a few Hematite(Fe2O3) in the furnace , as demonstrated by the X-RD test for the resulting powder, and then the particle size of the resulting Magnetite and Hematite powder was estimated at (0.222-158.866µm). m)µ(0.252-158.866.

EFFECT OF INCREASING RIDE HEIGHT ON THE GENERATED AERO-DYNAMICAL FORCES

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 144-154

In this study, the changing in ride height of the car, which is usually arbitrarily been made, has been investigated. Many reasons could be achieved when ride has been increased, but without consideration of the undesired outcomes such as the related aero-dynamical forces effect. In this study, wind tunnel with fixed sedan car model was used. The model was easily allowed changing of the ride height. A range of velocities had been used as well. The General Full Factorial Method and Analysis of Variance were the convenient analytical tools in this study. The results showed that the drag force increased when ride height increased, especially, at the fronted point (stagnation point) which might increase fuel consumption and related pollution..

Effects of blocked streets on the environmental pollution of the city of Baghdad (Neighborhood (909) Eastern Karrada as a case study)

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 155-173

The process of blocking streets in the city of Baghdad has had a significant impact on the lives of citizens in several aspects, including psychological, physical, physical and other effects, but the lack of a clear perception of the environmental effects caused by the streets in the city of Baghdad is a problem that must be addressed, The research found that the vehicles are forced to travel long distances in order to reach a certain point instead of going directly to them because of the blocks in the streets of Baghdad.
It has been shown that the movement of these additional vehicles generate a number of problems, including increasing the temperature in the atmosphere of the city of Baghdad as well as air pollution as a result of the increase in emissions of car exhaust gases and also increase pollution noise, and on the other hand, the increase in fuel consumption and consumption of vehicles due to increased distances And the consequent financial burden on the citizen in the first place, in addition to all that loss of time as a result of this additional movement of vehicles.
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