ISSN: 1999-8716

Volume 10, Issue 1

Volume 10, Issue 1, Winter 2017, Page 1-131


EFFECT OF LIGHTWEIGHT COARSE AGGREGATE FROM CLAYSTONE AND THERMOSTNE ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

Muyasser M. J; Algubory Emad K. A

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-17

ان من اصناف الخرسانة المعتمدة عالمياﹰ هي الخرسانة الخفيفة والتي تصنف حسب توفر موادها الأولية والغرض من استخدامها انشائياﹰ، اختصت هذه الدراسة باستبدال الركام الخشن الاعتيادي بالركام الخشن الخفيف من الصخور الطينية (بونزا) وركام مخلفات الثرمستون وبنسب حجمية (25، 50، 75، 100) % إضافة لأعداد خلطة مرجعية. لغرض تحديد ودراسة المواصفات المهمة للخرسانة الجديدة تم اعداد نماذج مكعبات واسطوانات ومواشير قياسية لتقييم مقاومة الانضغاط والشد غير المباشر ومعاير الكسر ومعامل المرونة الساكن وكذلك وحدة الوزن والامتصاص والتوصيلية الحرارية ، حيث اعتمد معدل القراءات لكل الفحوصات. أشارت نتائج الفحوصات الى انخفاض الخواص الميكانيكية للخرسانة بزيادة الركام الخشن الخفيف ،حيث سجلت معدلات قيم الخواص الميكانيكية كل من : مقاومة الانضغاط ومعاير الكسر ومقاومة شد الانشطار غير المباشر بين (15.5-40.2) نتملم2 ،(3-4.85) نتملم2 ،(1.3-4.5) نتملم2 مقارنة بالخلطة المرجعية (42.25 نتملم2)، (5 نتملم2(،( 4.77 نتملم2) على التوالي، وتراوحت معدلات معامل المرونة الساكن والكثافة الجافة بالفرن والامتصاص والتوصيلية الحرارية بين (16630-27067) نتملم2 ،(1400.5-2122.96) كغمم3 ،(4.58-11.8) % ،(0.414-1.022)) واطم. كيلو جول) مقارنة بالخلطة المرجعية (28152 نتملم2(،(2335.67 كغمم3) ،(1.78 %) ،(1.33 واطم. كيلو جول) على التوالي .

ESTIMATE OF BEARING CAPACITY OF GYPSEOUS SOILS FROM FIELD DATA

A. A. H. Al-Obaidi; Mohammed S. M

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-20

This research examined field data of 84 boreholes form ten chosen sites in Salah Aldeen Governorate. The soils for these sites are granular gypseous with gypsum content (Gyp. %) ranged from 8.37-51.14%. Based on Standard Penetration Test (SPT), the N values for each chosen site were corrected for field procedures and overburden pressure effects by exploiting NovoSPT program to get (N1)60 or NCor. values, where these values used later by this program for allowable bearing capacity calculations. To study the properties and illustrating the behavior of these gypseous soils, the SPSS and the Curve Expert programs were used to perform statistical analysis for the data of the chosen sites. For dry condition, it is concluded that (NCor.) values are increasing with (Gyp. %) after deactivating the effects of void ratio and average particles size. Also the allowable bearing capacity (qall) values are observed to be increased with (Gyp. %). Based on the stresses affecting the SPT sampler, the peck et al.,1974 Equation was proved to be the reliable formula among the others Equations for calculating (qall) from field N values. Depending on calibration chamber )laboratory SPT) tests results and cavity expansion theory, it is dependable to use 0.5 exponent for CN correction Equation of overburden pressure effect.

A NEW ALGORITHM FOR ENCRYPTING ARABIC TEXT USING THE MATHEMATICAL EQUATION

Saad Abdulazeez Shaban; Basim Najim al-din

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 21-30

Most organizations today use two levels of security: Data security level (encryption) and Network security level (firewall) etc. Therefore, encryption plays a vital role in securing daily operations of organizations. Securing data at first level aims to hide data characteristics. So, different algorithms and methods are being researched and developed to cover this gap for securing different data types especially text messages and make it very difficult for unauthorized parties to break it. From these, the major no. of algorithms are specialized to encrypt English texts, but no one for Arabic language texts although there were many attempts to invent such algorithms.
As a result, this research proposed a new encryption method to encrypt Arabic text by using the principle of integration to provide better security and increasing the complexity of guessing the correct keys and correct plain text.
At the end, the results show that the new cryptosystem is inevitable to cryptanalysis attack.

INFLUENCE OF WATER SOURCE ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE

Shatha Deyaa Mohammed; Nawar Omran Ali; Rawaa Khalid Aboud

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 31-38

This research studies the influence of water source on the compressive strength of high strength concrete. Four types of water source were adopted in both mixing and curing process these are river, tap, well and drainage water (all from Iraq-Diyala governorate). Chemical analysis was carried out for all types of the used water including (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), Turbidity, chloride, total suspended solid (TSS), and sulfates). Depending on the chemical analysis results, it was found that for all adopted sources the chemical compositions was within the ASTM C 1602/C 1602M-04 limits and can be satisfactorily used in concrete mixtures.
Mixture of high strength concrete for compressive strength of (60 MPa) was designed and checked using water-to-cement ratio of 0.37, 400.5 kg cement with 10% replacement of SF (Silica Fume), 607 kg sand, 1147 kg gravel and 0.85 lit /100 kg of cement of SP (Supper Plasticizer). Five ages were adopted to measure the compressive strength these are (7, 14, 28, 60, 90 and 120) days.
The results indicated that the strength of concrete at different ages was affected by the adopted water source especially on the period (28-90) days. There was a reduction on the compressive strength varies between (8.5-3) % and (3-1.5) % for both river and well water source which is belong to the effect of chlorides.

A NEW CRYPTOGRAPHY METHOD BASED ON HILL AND RAIL FENCE ALGORITHMS

Ann Z. Ablhd; Ashty M. Aaref

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 39-47

Encryption has a great benefit, it provides privacy and security of all concepts of data transmitted across open networks. An urgent need for methods of strong encryption has become important with the rapid development of the computer, it detract from the strength of encryption; and because the increase computer speed means shortening the time that the computer needs to break or disclosure of specific encryption key.
Encryption may be strong or weak, to measure the encryption strength by the time and resources required for the process of detecting non-encrypted texts of encrypted texts. As a result of testing proposed system it appear that this system is strong encryption cipher text because it is hard to detect with the time or provide the necessary tools to detect the plain text.
Due to the wide use of broken cipher methods in Cryptography. There are many important information to be secure. It proposed a new approach of ciphering, by mixing a substitution followed by a transposition cipher methods to produce a new secure method difficult to break. This is a bridge from a classical to modern ciphers.
The substitution cipher algorithm that is used in this paper is Hill cipher, and the transposition cipher algorithm that is used is Rail fence.
The language that is used for this proposed algorithm is C++ with Object Oriented Programming. The proposed system is called RailHill.

AN ASSESSMENT THE EFFICIENCY FOR A PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR COLLECTOR WITH DIFFERENT HORIZONTAL AXIS BY USING TRACKING SYSTEM

Ali A. F. Al- Hamadani

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 48-57

The solar energy in Iraq is available, but till now a little application for using it. The parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) technology, which considers being one of the low-cost and most operative technologies for solar power plant. The performance of a PTSC with solar tracking system has been experimentally investigated under Kut city, Iraqi climate conditions. The experimental work focused on changing the horizontal axis and mass flow rate of water. It has been started with 0o, 30o, 60o receptively. The zero angle represents an east direction, then rotate toward the south. The instantaneous efficiency was employed to evaluate the thermal performance of the PTSC. The equation had been solved using equation engineering solver (EES). The results showed that Kut city holds a good potential for such energy generation technology with an average efficiency of 38.8% and instantaneous efficiency that can reach as high as 70%. This study is highly encouraging the Iraq government to invest in the PTSC technology in Iraq to meet the increasing demand on electric power. The best efficiency is zero angle which represents the east direction. The efficiency, enhanced with the mass flow rate till certain value. The heat transfer coefficient for zero angle was significant compare with other angles. The result was validated with fixed parabolic trough and a good agreement. The performance improved with increase the mass flow rate till 30 kg/hr after that no any effect of it.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE COMBUSTION AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF OTTO ENGINE FUEL WITH NAPHTHALENE-GASOLINE BLENDS

Munther Abdullah Mussa

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 58-70

The growing demand of energy in transportations especially in small cars field leads to increase the contribution of this vital sector of modern life in the greenhouse effect and environment problems. Any enhancement in the thermal efficiency of the car’s engines will reduce the amount of bad effects gases that released from gasoline engines exhausts. Rising Octane number and or enhance the combustion process result in increasing of engine output power. Naphthalene as mothballs, which is a commonly household used in exclusion of harmful insects, is probable additive to achieve that. The usage of Naphthalene needs to study its impacts on the performance of Otto cycle’s engines and their exhaust gases. Blends of Naphthalene as additive and gasoline as base material have been prepared and examined. The study based on experimental tests and laboratory assays including; Octane number calculations, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis (FTIR), Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis (GCMS) and thermal performance tests and emissions analysis. Naphthalene had been approved as a good additive to rise the octane number and output power with some caveats. It should carefully control Naphthalene concentration to avoid the side effects of overdose and should not directly dissolved in the car fuel tank to prevent the formation of the deposits.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON ELECTROCHEMICAL MACHINING PARAMETERS

Dhia Ahmed Alazawi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 71-80

The inherent characteristics of electrochemical machining (ECM) have large scale of advantages over the traditional machining technologies. ECM has been employed in this work to machining low carbon AISI1005 steel. Such technique is used to remove the electrical conductive material via a controlled electrochemical anodic reaction regardless of the metal mechanical properties. The considered experiments were conducted to study the effects of process parameters such as applied voltage, electrolyte flow rate, current density on all of weight loss, dissolution rate and material removal rate (MRR) in sodium chloride aqueous solution. The results stated that, the weight loss is in general increased with the voltage and the flow rate as its maximum value was 9.23 g and 5.35g respectively. Increasing the current density has led to obtain maximum MRR and dissolution rate of 0.248g/min and 1.59 mm/min respectively. The results showed that there was an enhancement in the MRR and the dissolution rate so as to be 66.8% and 49.3% respectively.

IMAGE ENCRYPTION BASED ON FRACTIONAL ORDER LORENZ SYSTEM AND WAVELET TRANSFORM

Abbas Salman Hameed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 81-91

To securely transmit data in open networks, encryption must be used. In this paper, cryptography technique of images is presented with chaos and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Fractional order Lorenz system that provides an expanded in key space is used to encrypt image. All properties of randomness and nonlinearity which are owned by this chaotic system are guarantee a highly secure and robustness for Encryption process. As well as DWT offers additional space and security by using wavelet domain to shuffled image pixels after passing in DWT filters and sampling. The combination between Lorenz system and DWT have been taken to make the image more secure and thus make very hard to get back the original image without having its correct key and procedure which were used to encrypt. The results show a large sensitivity to a small change in the secret key or DWT family type. Therefore, high complicated image security is offered using this system.

ECO-FRIENDLY CONCRETE CONTAINING PET PLASTIC WASTE AGGREGATE

Wasan Ismail Khalil; Khalaf Jumaa Khalaf

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 92-105

The experimental program in this investigation focused on studying the properties of concrete containing different percentages of Plastic Wastes Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastic waste as a volumetric replacement to natural coarse aggregate. Different percentages (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) of PET shredded plastic waste from waste PET bottles as a volumetric replacement to natural coarse aggregate and 10% silica fume as a replacement by weight of cement content were used. The properties of these concrete mixes including, workability, dry density, compressive strength, total flexural energy, impact resistance, thermal conductivity at 28 days age and drying shrinkage at 90 days age were studies. The use of plastic waste aggregate in concrete presents various advantages; one of these advantages is that plastic aggregates result in producing lightweight concrete depending on the percentage of plastic waste used. The dry density of concrete containing higher percentage of PET plastic waste of 40% and 50% as a volumetric replacement to natural coarse aggregate, was 1910 and 1850 kg/m3 respectively. Also thermal insulating properties of concrete containing plastic waste aggregate were improved.

SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF AN EARTH DAM

Jasim M. Abbas; Qasim A. Aljanabi; Zainab Ali Mutiny

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 106-117

The study of slope stability is important in the design and construction of the earth dams under influence of earthquake and some surcharge loads. Some factors affect the slope stability for the earth dam such as change the water level in the reservoir or rapid drawdown of the water level. In the present study, limit equilibrium methods and finite element method have been used to calculate the factor of safety of earth dam. The main objective is studying the influence the soil strength parameters including cohesion, angle of internal friction and unit weight of soil on the values of factor of safety of the upstream slope for earth dam. The results show that the values of factor of safety increase when the values of soil strength parameters (cohesion, angle of internal friction)and water level increased, and the value of unit weight of the soil decrease, and the values of factor of safety, decreasing fast in rapid draw down of the water level. The main conclusion is the stability of the earth dam increases when the soil strength parameters (cohesion, angle of internal friction) increase and unit weight of the soil decrease with increasing the water level in the reservoir and the earth dam may be exposed to the collapse in the case of the rapid drawdown of water level.

ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS FOR PRINCIPLE URBAN STREETS IN ARBIL CITY IN IRAQ

Basim Jrew; Majed Msallam; Shereen Khaled; Mohammad Abojaradeh

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 118-131

Traffic accidents are considered one of the most important problems in modern societies. Arbil city in Iraq suffers from this problem; it is considered the second major cause of death.
The main objectives of this study are to analyze and evaluate the causes of traffic accidents by using the statistical analysis technique, and self-observation study. In this study Traffic accident data, Geometric condition data ,and Traffic condition data, related to the Arbil streets network was collected, prepared and analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. High Accident Locations (HAL) on the street network were identified by using various techniques. Self-observation on all selected streets that had (HAL) was summarized. Different predictive statistical models were developed for the streets in Arbil urban area. The Accident prediction models can be used to predict the probability of an accident at a certain location based on different variables. The statistical analysis of the study concluded that some of the geometric and traffic conditions are much related to traffic accident.
It was concluded from this study that the increasing number of segments in principle urban streets will increase the number of total accidents and the number of property damages. Also, it was found that Pedestrian crossing areas ignored by pedestrians and the drivers do not give priority to pedestrians for crossing the street, due to lack of traffic awareness by drivers and pedestrians. The study recommends that Roads should be designed and constructed according to international standards. Also, it is recommended to improve traffic awareness of road users: drivers, pedestrians, and passengers through organized educational awareness programs.