ISSN: 1999-8716

Volume 11, Issue 2

Volume 11, Issue 2, Spring 2018, Page 1-89


Study the Response of Bubbled Wide Reinforced Concrete Beams with Different Shear Steel Plate Spacing

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 1-13

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the behavior of bubbled wide reinforced concrete beams with different shear steel plate spacing. Four specimens with the dimensions of 215x560x1800mm are investigated. The variables studied in this work is using the 10mm stirrups with 125mm spacing and 3mm thickness steel plate with spacing 125, 166 and 250mm instead of reinforcing stirrups. Shear steel plates is good alternative for replacing the stirrups and gives increasing in yield and ultimate loads with 17% and 18% respectively and decreasing the deflection by 8% at yield and 12% at ultimate. Moreover decrease the strain in longitudinal reinforcement by 8% at yield and 24% at ultimate, and reduced the total weight by 2.7%. By increasing the spacing of shear steel plate by 33% and 100%, the results showed that the yield load reduced to 3% and 4% respectively, but the deflection was increased with 37% and 20% (at yield). The strain in interior legs is more than the strain in exterior legs by 189%, 142% and 52% at yield for spacing 125, 166 and 250mm respectively. ACI 318-14 [1] and EC 2 [2] codes give a predicted deflection more than the experimental deflection by 26% and 30% on average respectively.

Using of Advanced Communication Technology in the Construction Projects During the Implementation Stage

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 14-23

Iraq is a wide country in the area and construction projects have been distributed in many places, therefore this research studies the ability to use advanced communication tools such as computer-mediated communication instead of traditional communication (Face To Face). Revit application which based on BIM technology have been used , this application helped in exchange design information between designer and site engineer for in making decisions , solving problems ,reduce wasted time and reduce the expenses that occur as a result of the use of FTF communication .The results concluded from this research are that communication quantity in FTF was more than in CMC where Total Number of Words (TNOW) were in FTF 303 while in CMC 246 , The percentage of Number of Work Related Words said in CMC is higher than in FTF, it was 87% in CMC and 81% in FTF of the (TNOW) , it is indicating that communication in CMC more productive than communication in FTF, in addition to that the working time in CMC were (262 seconds every 5-minutes) slightly higher than in FTF were (252 seconds every 5-minutes), this explains that CMC was slightly more productive than FTF . Wasted time for FTF consistently higher than wasted time in CMC ,where the averages of wasted time spent for every 5 minutes were 32 second in FTF and 21 in CMC ,this is due to that FTF was easier than CMC in terms of social speech. To identify degree collaboration between users in two methods by the total number of exchanges in CMC was higher than in FTF because most of the persons were having more interaction when using CMC.

Some Properties of High Strength Sustainable Concrete Containing Glass Powder Waste

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 24-32

This investigation includes the use of glass wastes after recycling to produce high strength sustainable concrete. The glass waste used is prepared to be a natural Pozzolan class (N) according to ASTM C618 with fineness of about 7340 cm2/gm. Many concrete mixes with different percentages of glass waste powder as a partial replacement by weight of cement (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%) were prepared to study some properties of concrete (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity at 60 day age). The test results indicate that the mechanical properties of concrete are improved with the increase of glass waste powder up to 15%, and then decreased. The maximum percentages of increase for compressive, splitting tensile, flexural strengths, and modulus of elasticity are 13.29%, 36.27%, 34.68%, and 8.2% respectively relative to the reference for concrete specimens containing 15% glass waste powder as a replacement by weight of cement.
Corrosion inhibition of low carbon steel, stainless steel types 316 and 304 in hydrochloric acid by potassium iodide was investigated at different temperatures using weight loss and polarization electrochemical techniques

Building Information Modeling (BIM) as Economical and Properties Assessment Tool for Building Units Alternatives Made with Lightweight Foamed Concrete

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 33-41

Lightweight foamed concrete brick is new construction materials. It gives a prospective solution to building construction industry, this research aims to study the cost, dead loads, environmental issues and energy consumption from using lightweight foam concrete bricks as construction materials by utilizing building information modeling technique. The results obtained from this modelling proved that the cost of brick work using lightweight foamed concrete units of grade A (2000 kg/m3) and B (1800 kg/m3) is higher by (19.4% and 11.9%) respectively than the activity cost using traditional fired clay bricks. For grade C (1600 kg/m3) that cost was very close to fired clay bricks (+2.9%). while the construction of brick work using light weight foamed concrete units of grade D (1400 kg/m3) and E (1200 kg/m3) was lower by (8% and 18.6%) than fired clay bricks. Besides that, the dead load generated by building units was decreased by (7.7-38.5%) for grade (B, C, D, E) than the load of fired clay bricks, while the load generated from used lightweight foam concrete bricks grade is very closed to fired clay bricks (+2.5%). There was a reduction in energy consumption by the rate of (4.1-62.2%) for heating and (9.8-73.4%) for cooling as wall sharing in energy consumption. Environmental analysis showed sustainable potential so that the production of lightweight foamed concrete units reduces CO2 emission by (46.5-67.9%) compared with the fired clay bricks. Finally; it can be concluded that building units produced in this research with LWFC, characterized with properties can efficiently compete the fired clay bricks.

Studying the Strength of the Pile Cap Concrete Simulated as a Continues Deep Beam using Self Compact Concrete

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 42-48

This paper is an experimental study to investigate the effect of concrete compressive strength on the structural behavior of continuous reinforced concrete deep beams to utilize the results on the piles caps works. Three nominal concrete compressive strengths 50, 60 and 70 MPa obtained by self-compacting concrete were frequently used with four groups of shear span-to-depth ratios 5.71, 1.25, 1.08 and 0.95 to produce twelve continuous beams; three of them are shallow and the rest are deep. The comparisons were designed to reveal the variation in the structural behaviors among the shallow and deep specimens from a side, and among the deep specimen from another side.
The experimental program concentrated on the ultimate strength, load-deflection curve, cracking and failure mode of the specimens. The results revealed that the concrete compressive strength is an effective factor on the behavior of the deep beam and when its value increased the ultimate strength and the serviceability of specimen can be improved about 48% whilst the enhancement achieved in shallow beams about 9%. The percentage of the obtained improvement for a specimen can be increased by decreasing its shear span-to-depth ratio.

Generation of Rainfall Intensity Duration Curves Using Disaggregation Technique

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 49-54

The rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationship is a relationship between rainfall duration, rainfall intensity and storm return period generally required for outlining of various hydraulic structures such as dams, Culverts, Siphons etc. Evaluation of rainfall extreme expected values, as used in intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationship, has long been a major interest of both theoretical and applied studies in surface hydrology. The IDF relationship is resolved through factual investigation of tests of records from a given meteorological stations cover the study region. For the present study, information from the verifiable arrangement of most extreme month to month precipitation acquired from a pluviometric Kirkuk station were utilized. They were made accessible by the Ministry of Water Resources. Thirty seven outrageous occasions were gotten from the record from years of 1971 to 2010. Considering that the sample is representative of the genesis of the intense rainfalls of the studied region and that the probability of the events follows distribution of extremes Type I (Gumbel distribution). Many stations do not have long information records for lengths shorter than 1 day and in this way the character of short precipitation lengths must be evaluated from different sources. The fundamental focus point of this paper is to build IDF curves for the area utilizing precipitation recurrence investigation procedures utilizing new disaggregation strategy method. Different durations ranging from 5 minutes to 24 hours for return periods of 5, 10, 50, and 100 years were analyzed

Theoretical Analysis of Fiber Bragg Grating Tunable Filter Utilizing Tensile /Compression Technique

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 55-59

In this paper a wideband tunable filter based on fiber Bragg grating (TF-FBG) utilizing tensile/ compression technique is theoretically investigated. According to the results, a wide tuning range is achieved about 48.36 nm in C-band region from 1513.7 nm to 1562.1 nm; 12.09 nm for tension and 36.27 nm for compression (C-band refers to the wavelength range 1530–1565 nm). While, for L-band region the wavelength shift is slightly greater than in the C-band region about 49.272 nm from 1543 nm to 1592.3 nm; 12.3 nm for tension and 36.972 nm for compression (L-band refers to the wavelength range 1565 – 1625 nm).

A New Technology for Reducing Power Consumption in Synchronous Digital Design Using Tri-State Buffer

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 60-66

This research paper deals with design and implementation of low power 8-bit arithmetic logic units. The main part of power consumption is consumed in ALU in any processor. Therefore, reducing power dissipation in ALU should be requiring. The proposed technique disabled one of the main block of ALU using tri-state logic which is not necessary to use, except the required processes. In this work, the suggested design is realized by using ASIC methodologies. In order to implement the arithmetic and logic architectures, 130 nm standard cell libraries are used for ASIC execution. The architecture of the design has been created using Verilog HDL language. In addition, it is simulated using ModelSim-Altera 10.3c (Quartus II 14.1) tools. By using tri-state technique, dynamic power and total power are decreased.

Video Steganography Using LSB Substitution and Sobel Edge Detection

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 67-73

The procedure that involves the in closure of information without altering its intuitive standard is called data embedding. In this paper the secret message (English text) is hidden in the edge of the frames of the .AVI video without changing the details of frames. MATLAB R2013a is utilized to execute this algorithm. The secret message was embedded in the frames 38,39,40,41 and 42 and the reason of selecting those frames is that these frames have sufficient edge point details in them. High embedding and superior quality of encoded secret messages have been accomplished by this design. Additionally, in this project the cover frame image is represented by a 120 frames size 120* 160, and the secret message has been represented with a message comprised of 300 characters Both Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and the Mean Square Error (MSE) have been taken into consideration while analyzing the suggested method as we calculated both PSNR and MSE between the cover frames and the embedded ones. The results obtained were objectively good as the PSNR value ranges from 74.5293dB to 75.9123 dB.

Improving Diesel Engine Efficiency and Emissions Using Fuel Additives

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 74-78

Diesel engine is widely used in the different applications of the modern life. Diesel fuel quality is an important indicator of the engine efficiency and exhaust emissions. However, the low cetane number of the commercial diesel resulting from improper refining processes lead to significant reduction in the engine efficiency. Hence, the aim of this study is to use diethyl ether to improve the fuel quality for better engine performance at lower engine emissions. Diethyl ether has been used at 5% percentage with commercial diesel, and the cetane number of the fuel was measured. Engine test was conducted at increasing speed to evaluate the engine performance and emissions. The study results show an improvement in the fuel cetane number from 49 to 51 with 5% diethyl ether. Furthermore, significant increase in engine power by about 10% has been recorded for the whole engine speed with slightly lower specific fuel consumption at low and medium engine speeds. Moreover, noticeable reduction in NOx emissions and CO emissions has been observed compared to commercial diesel. Therefore, it can be concluded that the utilization of diethyl ether as a fuel additive with commercial diesel can be considered for improving engine efficiency and control exhaust emissions.

Toughening of Epoxy Polysulfide Binary Blend Composite

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 79-83

In a composite structure, it is anticipated that high toughening can be achieved by taking advantage of mixing rubber with epoxy. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the toughness characteristics of Polymeric Composites containing Polysulfide Rubber (PSR) as a toughener to a brittle base epoxy resin. Through comparing with neat resin specimens (epoxy, epoxy +PSR), the results showed that the addition of PSR into polymeric resin enhance toughness of epoxy. Similarly experiment showed that the maximum value of mixing ration is 6% PSR, which cause a noticeable enhancement in composite strain, but a reduction in tensile strength and modulus of elasticity at fracture.

Effect of Annealing Treatment on the Anisotropy Behavior of Cold Rolled Stainless Steel 304 Sheets

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 84-89

Anisotropy of materials has harmful effects during deep drawing operations and reduce it will strongly enhance the productivity and quality of deep drawing yields. In this work the effect of annealing treatment on texture and anisotropy behavior of cold rolled stainless steel 304 sheets were investigated. Uniaxial tensile test samples cut at 0o, 45o and 90o to the rolling direction were prepared in order to measure the anisotropy parameters (normal anisotropy, r_n, and planar anisotropy, ∆r). Two annealing temperatures (1050, and 1150) °C were used to study their effects on anisotropy behavior. The results show that the normal anisotropy value of annealed samples at 1150°C increases by (31%) as compared to the received samples. This indicates that the annealed samples at 1150 °C have the highest formability. Also, results show significant reduction (about 88.7%) in planar anisotropy value for 1150°C annealed samples. This gave rise to an increase in deep drawing yield.